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Purple Cards – Set 1

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  1. Purple Cards – Set 1 By: Michaela Stiger

  2. Reform and Culture • This unit addresses the cultural aspects of the United States history during the 19th century. • * In addition, it addresses the reform movements of the mid-1800s, including public education, temperance, prison reform, care of the disabled and women’s rights. • * Finally, it takes an in-depth study of the abolition movement.

  3. Major Eras and Events in U.S. History through 1877 • Abolition • Women’s Rights • Education • Care of the Disabled and Mentally Ill • Prisons • Temperance

  4. Frederick Douglass • Leading African-American abolitionist, accomplished orator and writer.

  5. Susan B. Anthony • Key spokesperson for the 19th century women’s suffrage movement • Suffrage – right to vote

  6. Elizabeth Cady Stanton • Leader of the 19th century women’s suffrage movement • Called for the first convention of women’s movement in Seneca Falls • Wrote the “Declaration of Sentiments” which was approved at the Seneca Falls Convention

  7. Political, Social, and Economic Contributions of Women to American Society • Political: began the fight for suffrage • Social: allowed women to be successful in other fields • Economic: fought for women’s rights; they were able to get the work day reduced to 10 hours a day

  8. Historical Development of the Abolitionist Movement • Abolitionist movement worked to end slavery • 1807 – Congress banned the importation of African slaves into the United States and then demand began to end slavery • 1820 – 1840 – Abolitionists grew in number • 1840 – 1850 – Abolitionist leaders Frederick Douglass and Sojourner Truth began to speak out across the nation; The Underground Railroad began to make an impact and the Women’s Movement joined in

  9. Reform Movements • Public Education • Opening of public schools • Primarily in the North as well as private grade schools and colleges • By churches and other groups

  10. Reform Movements • Temperance • Organized societies that worked at trying to stop the drinking of alcohol • Some states passed laws that made it illegal to sell alcohol

  11. Reform Movements • Women’s Rights • Well organized groups that fought for better working conditions for women • Were able to pass a federal law that ordered a 10 hour working day

  12. Reform Movements • Prison Reform • Pushed for separate jails for women, men, and children • Called for the mission of prisons to be rehabilitation

  13. Reform Movements • Care of the disabled • Building of new hospitals for the mentally ill, deaf, and blind

  14. Religious Motivation for Immigration and Influence on Social Movements • Second Great Awakening • Brought more denominations that intensified the lines between classes and regions • Spawned many of the humanitarian reform movements; prison reform, women’s rights, temperance, and abolition of slavery

  15. Developments in Art, Music, and Literature that are Unique to the American Culture • Transcendentalism • An American literary political and philosophical movement in the early 19th Century • These men were critics of their contemporary society for its unthinking conformity and urged each individual find their independent relation to the universe • Particularly utilizing solitude in nature • Ralph Waldo • Emerson , author

  16. Developments in Art, Music, and Literature that are Unique to the American Culture • Literature • Emily Dickinson • Walt Whitman- Leaves of Grass • Nathaniel Hawthorne – The Scarlet Letter • Edgar Allan Poe

  17. Developments in Art, Music, and Literature that are Unique to the American Culture • Art – Landscapes • John James Audubon • Drew American wildlife

  18. Developments in Art, Music, and Literature that are Unique to the American Culture • Hudson River School Artists • Their paintings depict the American landscape and reflect three themes of America in the 19th Century: • Discovery • Exploration • Settlement • Albert Bierstadt; The Oregon Trail

  19. Developments in Art, Music, and Literature that are Unique to the American Culture • MUSIC • Slave spirituals and gospel music • “Battle Hymn of the Republic” • Written at the beginning of the Civil War • Used music from the abolitionist song, “John Brown’s Body” • Became a popular Civil War song of the Union Army • Still a well-loved patriotic anthem

  20. Examples of American Art, Music, and Literature that Reflect Society • Albert Bierstadt’s • River • Landscape

  21. Examples of American Art, Music, and Literature that Reflect • Music • Battle Hymn of the Republic • Lyrics by Julia Ward Howe • Dixie • Lyrics by Daniel Decateur Emmett  

  22. Examples of American Art, Music, and Literature that Reflect Society • Literature • Mark Twain • Samuel Langhorne Clemens (real name) • American author and humorist. He is most noted for his novels, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876), and its sequel, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885),[2] the latter often called "the Great American Novel."

  23. Purple Cards- Set 2 By; Michaela Stiger

  24. 1803 – 1850 • Manifest Destiny – belief that it was the destiny of the United States to expand its borders from “sea to sea” across the North American continent

  25. Major Elements of Manifest Destiny • Westward Expansion • War with Mexico • Annexation of Texas • Gold Rush

  26. Northwest Ordinance 1787 • Created an organized system for settlement of government lands in the Northwest Territory • Had to be at least 5,000 men who owned at least 50 acres • 60,000 people • An existing form of self-government

  27. Economic, Political, and Social Roots of Manifest Destiny • Economic: • New land for farmers • New trade routes and markets (Santa Fe Trail) • New opportunities to start a business • Political • Expansion of our nation’s borders/territories • Expansion of slavery • Social • Removal of Native Americans • Refuge for persecuted groups (Mormons)

  28. Relationship Between the Concept of Manifest Destiny and the Westward Growth of the Nation • The United States government and its citizens believed that the nation’s destiny or fate was to expand westward from sea to sea

  29. Causes of the United States-Mexican War • Annexation of Texas • Viewed as a “War of Aggression” by many Americans • Causes: • President Polk’s desire to expand the United States (Manifest Destiny) • Border disputes concerning the southern boundary of Texas (Rio Grande was claimed by Texas and disputed by Mexico.)

  30. Effects and Impacts of the United States-Mexican War • Effects and Impact • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) ends the war • Grants the United States the Mexican territory of New Mexico, Arizona and California • United States paid Mexico $10 million for the Gadsden Purchase to help repay Mexico for the annexation of Texas in 1845

  31. Areas Acquired to Create the United States • Louisiana Purchase • Mexican Cession • New Mexico, Arizona, California • Gadsden Purchase • Oregon Territory • Alaska Purchase • Seward’s Folly

  32. Sectionalism • loyalty to the interests of one's own region or section of the country, rather than to the country as a whole • Regions: North, South, West, Slave States, Free States • States: Texas, California, Kansas, Nebraska • Cities: Washington, D.C.

  33. Physical Characteristics of the Environment and their Influence on Population Distribution, Settlement Patterns, and Economic Activities in the US • Gold in California • Rush of settlers to California; pushed many American Indians off their lands; population of California quickly rises to the amount required for statehood • California’s proximity to the Pacific Ocean • Led to an increase of immigration from Asian nations • Rocky Mountains • Location between eastern and western parts of the United States resulted in a need for the Gadsden Purchase to put in a railroad train for transport of goods from East to West

  34. Purple Cards-Set 3 By: Michaela Stiger

  35. Missouri Compromise, 1820 • Sponsored by Henry Clay • Allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state • Allowed Maine to enter as a free state

  36. Nullification Crisis, 1828 • Tariff of Abominations: resulted in higher tariffs • In 1832, a lower tariff was passed • Still angered South Carolinians, led by John C. Calhoun • South Carolina declared the federal tariff null and void within its borders • Delegates to a special convention urged the state legislature to take military action and secede from the union if the federal government demanded customs duties • To prevent a civil war, Henry Clay proposed the Compromise Tariff of 1833 • The Government lowers the tariff and backs down

  37. Nullification Crisis, 1828 • Tariff of Abominations: resulted in higher tariffs • In 1832, a lower tariff was passed • Still angered South Carolinians, led by John C. Calhoun • South Carolina declared the federal tariff null and void within its borders • Delegates to a special convention urged the state legislature to take military action and secede from the union if the federal government demanded customs duties • To prevent a civil war, Henry Clay proposed the Compromise Tariff of 1833 • The Government lowers the tariff and backs down

  38. Compromise of 1850 • Sponsored by Henry Clay • Allowed California to enter the Union as a free state (pleased the North) • The rest of the Southwest was left open to slavery, depending on a vote of the people (popular sovereignty) who settled there (pleased the South) • Ended the slave trade in Washington, DC • Allowed those owning slaves to keep them (pleased both sides) • INCLUDED The Fugitive Slave Law • Required the return of escaped slaves to their owners (pleased the South, angered the North because they felt it was immoral)

  39. Kansas – Nebraska Act, 1854 • Allowed for Kansas and Nebraska to be organized on the basis of popular sovereignty • That is, the people would vote themselves to decide if they would be Free or Slave

  40. John C. Calhoun • South Carolina Senator • Favored states’ rights • Led opposition in South Carolina to the protective Tariff of 1828 (Tariff of Abominations)

  41. Henry Clay • Senator from Kentucky • known as “The Great Compromiser” for his ability to smooth sectional conflict through balanced legislation • Sponsored the Missouri Compromise in 1820 • Admitted Missouri as a slave state • Admitted Maine as a free state

  42. Daniel Webster • Senator from Massachusetts • Known as “The Great Orator” • Worked to create compromises with the southern states that would delay the start of the Civil War

  43. Roles Played by Significant Individuals During the Civil War • Jefferson Davis • President of the Confederate States of America

  44. Ulysses S. Grant • Commander of the Union Army • September 1861; he was promoted as a general • After a series of victories, including the capture of Vicksburg, Lincoln gave him command of the Union Army • He created an overall plan concentrated on Sherman’s march through Georgia and his own assault on the Confederate Army in Virginia • Grant accepted Lee’s surrender in 1865, ending the war.

  45. Robert E. Lee • When the South seceded, Lincoln offered Lee the command of Union forces but Lee refused • Resigned from the U.S. Army and returned to Virginia to serve with the Confederate forces • In 1862, Lee was appointed to command the Army of Northern Virginia • His battle strategies are admired to this day, but he was criticized for having a narrow strategy centered on his native Virginia • He surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House in 1865

  46. Abraham Lincoln • 16th President of the United States

  47. William Carney • Served with the 54th Massachusetts Regiment (Union) during the Civil War • He was the first black soldier to receive the award • Reason for citation: when the 54th’s sergeant was shot down, this soldier grasped the flag, led the way to the parapet, and planted the colors there. When the troops fell back he brought the flag, under a fierce fire in which he was twice severely wounded

  48. Philip Bazar • Was a navy seaman in the Union Navy • Won the Medal of Honor for his distinguished service in the Civil War • Reason for citation: on board the U.S.S. Santiago de Cuba during the assault on Fort Fisher on January 15, 1865 • As one of a boat crew detailed to one of the generals on shore • Bazar bravely entered the fort in the assault and accompanied his party in carrying dispatches at the height of the battle • He was one of six men who entered the fort in the assault from the fleet

  49. Sectionalism • Loyalty to local interests instead of national concerns • In the United States, the differences between northern southern, and western areas increased throughout the early 1800s. • Different cultures and business practices existed in the three sections of the country and these concerns often conflicted. • Farming was the main livelihood of all three sections

  50. Major Events of the Civil War • Firing on Fort Sumter • Fort Sumter, South Carolina • A federal fort in the Charleston Harbor • Was fired upon by Rebel forces to begin the Civil War • April 12, 1861 • P.G.T. Beauregard, Confederate • Major Robert Anderson, Union