Project 1 PJM: RTO. By Nishant Patel Chirag Patel. Contents. Introduction & Governance PJM as RTO PJM Operations Transmission Services PJM Market Ancillary Services Blackstart Service Transmission Control. Introduction.
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1271 Generation Resources with Diverse Fuel
Over 56,250 Miles of Transmission Lines
Over 51 Million People Served
Generating capacity - 164,905 MW
Annual energy delivery - 729 million MWh
* Peak load in MW as of Summer, 2006
• Maintain the “big picture” of the transmission system regardless of ownership.
• Have, by agreement, operational control of the transmission system.
• Operate as “profit neutral.”
• Remain totally independent of all PJM members.
• Coordinates maintenance of generation and transmission systems.
PJM does not:
• Own any transmission or generation assets.
• Function as a publicly traded company.
• Take ownership of the energy on the system.
• Perform the actual maintenance on generators or transmission systems.
• Serve, directly, any end use (retail) customers.
Two Tire Governance Structure
Elected by Members’ Committee
• Ensure Security of the Transmission System
• Monitor Transfer Limitations
• Monitor Thermal Constraints
• Contingency Analysis
• Direct Off-Cost Operations
• Coordinate Switching
–Day-ahead schedule uses least-cost unit commitment and economic dispatch programs
–Hourly LMPs for next Operating Day calculated using generation offers, demand bids, and bilateral transaction schedules
–calculate hourly LMPs based on actual operating conditions
Internet based system that allows communication of system information between PJM and member company dispatchers, i.e. Generation and Transmission Outage Tickets.
Used by PJM operations staff to simultaneously disseminate information to transmission and generation control centers.
Video Graphic Recorders (VGRs) —VGRs are used to display and record the following:
6. Satellite Communications – Push-to-talk all-call and direct point-to-point satellite communications exists with PJM participants and participating external entities as back-up communications
Reserves are the additional capacity above the expected load. Scheduling excess capacity protects the power system against the uncertain occurrence of future operating events, including the loss of capacity or load forecasting errors.
• Step 1 - requests an IRC.
• Step 2 - PJM dispatcher deter mines the following values:
• Step 3 - compares the values, corresponding objectives to determine reserve deficiencies.
• Step 4 - Using the PJM eDART, PJM dispatcher reports the results of the IRC to the Generation Owners/Transmission Owners.
PJM dispatcher determines the approximate amount and location of lost generation, and the amount of Synchronized Reserve that must be loaded to:
Correct for the sudden loss of generation
2. Return interchange transfers or other thermal or reactive limitations to within the appropriate limits
3. Implement 100% synchronized reserves and /or contingency reserves (quick start) if the unit loss > 80% of the largest unit contingency and there is insufficient regulation and economic generation to recover the ACE
4. Load a percentage of the Synchronized Reserve (typically 100%) in the appropriate control zone(s).
5. Select the most effective response respecting the requirements of the regional reserve sharing programs in which PJM is a participant.
6. If loading of Synchronized Reserve may continue for longer than ten minutes, PJM dispatcher includes this statement in the PJM ALL-CALL message.
7. Contact external systems to implement Shared Reserves.
8. Requests the loading of an appropriate amount of non synchronized reserve (as required).
9. If Synchronized Reserve that is being loaded is not sufficient to recover the system, load synchronized Secondary Reserve.
of the forecast peak load for the entire day.
amount of Regulation assigned.
Resource owners will receive from PJM:
• AReg – Assigned Regulation: This is the assigned hourly regulation quantity (MW) that is cleared from the regulation market system.
• RegA – Real-time instantaneous resource owner fleet regulation
signal (+/- MW)
TReg – Total Regulation. This is the real-time fleet regulation capability (MW) that represents the active resource owner’s ability to regulate.
CReg – Current Regulation. This is the real-time fleet regulation feedback (+/- MW) that represents the active position of the fleet with respect to the +/- TReg capability.
PJM obtains the most cost efficient Regulation, order based on the total cost of each available resource to provide Regulation, including real time opportunity cost and the resource’s Regulation offer price.
An Area Regulation (AR) test is used for both certifying and verifying regulating capability for a resource.
During the AR test, the AR signal is fixed for the following four ten-minute periods:
There must be sufficient critical blackstart to serve critical load and at least a minimum of three critical black start units for each transmission zone
PJM has collected the list of critical black start units by Transmission Zone.
It will analyze the critical black start units to ensure an adequate amount of black start generation exists on the system.
It will also analyze any exceptions to the three units per zone rule internally and through the SOS committee.
(a) physically closing the generator breaker connected to a dead bus while the unit is running or
(b) by a test that simulates closing the generator breaker while only the generator side of the breaker is energized.
4. The capability to maintain frequency under varying load.
5. The capability to maintain voltage under varying load.
7. In addition to these unit-specific performance standards, each black start generation owner must maintain procedures for the startup of black start generation at each black start generating station.
• Starting and bringing the resource to synchronous
speed without assistance from a system electrical feed.
• Testing of all communication circuits.
• Simulating switching needed to connect the black start unit to the transmission system following a system blackout.
• Testing the features unique to each facility that relate to Black Start Service.
• How PJM controls for reactive limits
• How PJM controls voltage
• How PJM responds to overloaded transmission facilities.
• Description of regional reliability.