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Moving Beyond Implementation: Challenges and Possibilities. NCSM April 24 - 26, 2006 Edward A. Silver, Valerie Mills, Lawrence Clark, Geraldine Devine, Hala Ghousseini . Today’s Session: An Overview . The Implementation Plateau The BIFOCAL Project Background

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slide1

Moving Beyond Implementation: Challenges and Possibilities

NCSM April 24 - 26, 2006Edward A. Silver, Valerie Mills, Lawrence Clark,

Geraldine Devine, Hala Ghousseini

today s session an overview
Today’s Session: An Overview
  • The Implementation Plateau
  • The BIFOCAL Project
    • Background
    • The Mathematics Task Framework & Levels of Cognitive Demand
    • Design Principles and Structural Features
    • Instructional Issues Addressed in BIFOCAL
  • The Case of Giselle
  • Questions and Discussion
a common dilemma
A Common Dilemma

School District USA, introduced a problem-based, reform-oriented mathematics instructional program in the middle grades (i.e., CMP) about four years ago . Student achievement increased steadily for three years, but appears to be leveling off. Why? What can be done to support teachers and sustain growth?

comments on video clip
Comments on Video Clip
  • Teachers discuss case in relation to their classroom experiences implementing a problem-based curricula
  • Issues of curriculum materials are not the focus
  • Issues of instructional refinement emerge
    • How to manage multiple solutions
    • How to reach all students in the classroom
implementation plateau
Implementation Plateau
  • Characterized by teachers who participated in curriculum centered professional development during the implementation of a standards-based mathematics program
  • Teachers are familiar and confident using new program features such as:
    • new lesson format designs,
    • Student tasks that require eliciting and evaluating student’s written mathematical explanations, and
    • Investigations that utilize various grouping structures in the classroom
  • Teachers are generally committed to their own use of the new materials
implementation plateau7
Implementation Plateau
  • After the first year, student achievement on various standardized measures typically improves steadily for three to five years, then growth appears to level off.
  • Teachers feel generally confident, but …not fully competent and unable to articulate the problem
  • Vulnerable time for districts as concerns reemerge
  • District’s resources no longer available
slide8

Implementation Plateau

The curriculum implementation plateau is a stage when teaching and learning appear to bog down; there is a need to refine instructional practices established during implementation, to continue building local capacity, and to maintain growth in student performance through sustained, long-term teacher engagement and the provision of a space for guided reflection on the instructional issues they currently face.

slide9

Processes Associated With Implementation of Standards-based Mathematics Curricula

Level IV: Refinement & Building Local Capacity

PLATEAU

Level III: Implementation

Level II: Selection & Adoption

Level I: Awareness

(St. John, Heenan, Houghton, & Tambe, 2001)

slide10

The Role of the BIFOCAL Project

Level IV: Refinement & Building Local Capacity

PLATEAU

Level III: Implementation

BIFOCAL

Level II: Selection & Adoption

Level I: Awareness

(St. John, Heenan, Houghton, & Tambe, 2001)

slide11

The Goals of the BIFOCAL Project

  • Understand the implementation plateau
  • Assist teachers and schools
the bifocal project beyond implementation focus on challenge and learning
The BIFOCAL ProjectBeyond Implementation: Focus on Challenge and Learning

Project Team

Edward Silver, Valerie Mills, Alison Castro, Charalambos Charalambous, Lawrence Clark, Gerri Devine, Hala Ghousseini, Melissa Gilbert, Dana Gosen, Jenny Sealy, Beatriz Font Strawhun, & Gabriel Stylianides

the bifocal project
The BIFOCAL Project

The following organizations provide funding for various aspects of BIFOCAL:

• The National Science Foundation (via CPTM)

• The University of Michigan

• The Mathematics Education Endowment Fund

• The Oakland Intermediate School District

bifocal project history
BIFOCAL: Project History
  • Year One
    • 12 teacher leaders (experienced CMP users)
    • 10 full-day sessions
  • Year Two
    • 12 teacher leaders and 48 teachers (Ele., MS, HS)
    • 6 full-day sessions
    • 6 school-based sessions lead by teacher leaders
  • Year Three
    • Similar design to Year Two
    • Focus on assessment for learning
teaching with challenging mathematics tasks
Teaching with Challenging Mathematics Tasks

Teachers must decide “what aspects of a task to highlight, how to organize and orchestrate the work of the students, what questions to ask to challenge those with varied levels of expertise, and how to support students without taking over the process of thinking for them and thus eliminating the challenge.” NCTM, 2000, p.19

bifocal background in a nutshell
BIFOCAL: Background in a Nutshell
  • Supporting Frameworks/Perspectives :
    • “Practice-based” approach (Ball, Smith)
    • Mathematical Task Framework (QUASAR)
    • Case Analysis & Discussion
    • Lesson Study
bifocal practice based approach
BIFOCAL: Practice-Based Approach

Professional development experiences

  • situated in authentic teaching practice
  • allow the everyday of teaching to become the object of on-going investigation and inquiry
  • Build around professional learning tasks

(Smith, 2000; Ball & Cohen, 1999)

the mathematical task framework

Tasks as

enacted by

teacher and

students

Tasks as

they appear

in curricular

materials

Tasks as

set up by

teachers

Student

learning

The Mathematical Task Framework

Stein, Grover & Henningsen (1996)

Smith & Stein (1998)

Stein, Smith, Henningsen & Silver (2000)

mtf the bottom line
MTF - The Bottom Line
  • Tasks are important, but teachers also matter!
  • Teacher actions and reactions …
    • influence the nature and extent of student engagement with challenging tasks,
    • affect students’ opportunities to learn from and through task engagement.
some mtf related challenges facing all teachers of mathematics
Some MTF-Related Challenges Facing All Teachers of Mathematics
  • Resisting the persistent urge to tell and to direct; allowing time for student thinking
  • Knowing when/how to ask questions and to provide information to support rather than replace student thinking
  • Helping students accept the challenge of solving worthwhile problems and sustaining their engagement at a high level
bifocal background in a nutshell21
BIFOCAL: Background in a Nutshell
  • Motivation: “Implementation plateau” phenomenon
  • Supporting Frameworks/Perspectives :
    • “Practice-based” approach (Ball, Smith)
    • Mathematical Task Framework (QUASAR project)
    • Case Analysis & Discussion
    • Lesson Study
a typical year one bifocal session
A Typical Year One BIFOCAL Session

Case Analysis and Discussion (CAD)

  • Solve mathematical task
  • Read, analyze/discuss teaching cases (text, video, student work samples)

Modified Lesson Study(MLS)

  • Discuss lesson enactment from previous session
  • Select target lesson
  • Use structured set of questions to guide collaborative planning
feb 2004
Feb 2004
  • Marie Hanson Case: The Candy Jar Task
    • “What mathematical goals might a teacher using this task have for students?”
    • “What kinds of thinking/reasoning might we anticipate students using with this task?”
    • “What student misconceptions or errors might we anticipate with this task?”
feb 200424
Feb 2004
  • Marie Hanson Case
    • What inferences might you draw about these students understanding or misunderstanding? (cite line numbers to support your conclusions)
    • What did Marie do to assess student understanding or misunderstanding? (cite line numbers to support your conclusions)
    • Identify Marie’s instructional decisions in this segment and:
      • indicate how these moves either helped to maintain or undermine the demand of the tasks
      • speculate on the rationale Marie may have used to inform her use of multiple student solution approaches and its relationship to the mathematical goal of the lesson
feb 200425
Feb 2004
  • Modified Lesson Study - Adapted TTLP
  • Selecting and Setting up a Mathematical Task
    • What are your math goals for the lesson?
    • What are all the ways the task can be solved?
    • How will you introduce students to the activity so as not to reduce the demands of the task?
  • Supporting Students’ Exploration of the Task
    • As students are working independently or in small groups
  • Sharing and Discussion the Task
    • Which solution paths do you want to have shared during the class discussion in order to accomplish the goals for the lesson?
    • What will you see or hear that lets you know that students in the class understand the mathematical ideas or problem-solving strategies that are being shared?
a mathematics professional development synergy

Modified

Lesson Study

Case-Based

Professional

Development

Curriculum-Based

Professional

Development

A Mathematics Professional Development Synergy
blending cad and mls as the professional development evolves
Blending CAD and MLS as the Professional Development Evolves

Modified Lesson Study (3)

Instructional Issues XYZ

Case Analysis and Discussion (3)

Case Analysis and Discussion (2)

Modified Lesson Study (2)

Instructional Issues XY

Modified Lesson Study (1)

Instructional Issue X

Case Analysis and Discussion(1)

slide28

Instructional Issues Available for Refinement at the Implementation Plateau

  • Identifying mathematical goals, short-term and long -term
  • Considering multiple solution strategies
  • Scaffolding student thinking in ways that support the cognitive demands of the mathematics task
  • Assessing student understanding of mathematical ideas
  • Deciding how to support students without taking over the process of thinking for them and thus eliminating the challenge of the task
  • Anticipating student misconceptions
the case of giselle
The Case Of Giselle
  • Background information
  • Openness in voicing concerns and

sharing dilemmas

Tracing her learning trajectory with respect to:

  • Questioning techniques-supporting student work without doing the thinking for them
  • Sharing multiple solutions
the case of giselle30
The Case Of Giselle

January 2006

March 2004

November 2003

October 2003

May 2003

may 2003
May 2003
  • The kids [in David’s class] were talking with each other. There were a couple of instances where he was not even doing the questioning. They were excited to ask the questions. The first thing I thought about was “Wow, they are really confident!” I don’t get enough of that in my room. I am usually the questioner.
learning in transition october 2003
Learning In Transition: October 2003

Giselle: I noticed right off the bat that he [Randy Harris] asked a lot of questions. [...]I didn’t think it was as appropriate there.Hewas trying to get her up to where he thought she should be. This is something I would do. If my students are not all there I do ask a lot of questions and I don’t think that is always the right thing to do […]

His question was far too specific and [the student] wasn’t doing any higher level thinking…He walks her through what it should have been step by step […]She gives all the right answers, but she wouldn’t have gotten there without the questions.

Facilitator: So what would you do?

Giselle: […] Bring the other students in. I would want to involve another student and another idea. How quickly? I don’t know. But I know I would want the kids interacting more.

learning in transition november 2003
Learning In Transition: November 2003
  • At first you are reminding them […] “pull out from previous stages”, “look for something that would help you”, “how can you draw the lines”, “how can you make a triangle”, all that.But eventually they need to do that independently. You know, you are not always going to be in their hip pocket.They have to know what they are looking for.
  • I am reallyconcerned about their cognitive development.Arethey really getting anything out of it as they should be? Or am I just holding their hand and walking them one on one? You know what I mean? I wanted them to be successful, so I came to find to sacrifice something. It’s a little bit of cognitive demand, definitely. Cause I wanted them to be motivated.
learning in transition march 2004
Learning in Transition: March 2004
  • You can prepare questions beforehand but you have to look at what the kids are doing and it changes. […]I got them to get with a partner and compare statements, and see if there were errors before we got together and shared. In terms of questions, I really ended up coming up with them as we worked through,
  • I would look at what they were doing and what they were not getting at all and I would ask them things that would generate relationships, like what is the relationship between the height of the tallest man and this tree.
still learning january 2006
Still Learning: January 2006
  • Giselle helps another teacher realize the idea of using assessmentforlearning .
  • “Instead of just telling the kids what they did wrong and then showing them the right way to do it, we wanted them to brainstorm together on what was wrong in that approach” .
slide37

Implementation Plateau

The curriculum implementation plateau is a stage when teaching and learning appear to bog down; there is a need to refine instructional practices established during implementation, to continue building local capacity, and to maintain growth in student performance through sustained, long-term teacher engagement and the provision of a space for guided reflection on the instructional issues they currently face.

slide38

Instructional Issues Available for Refinement at the Implementation Plateau

  • Identifying mathematical goals, short-term and long -term
  • Considering multiple solution strategies
  • Scaffolding student thinking in ways that support the cognitive demands of the mathematics task
  • Assessing student understanding of mathematical ideas
  • Deciding how to support students without taking over the process of thinking for them and thus eliminating the challenge of the task
  • Anticipating student misconceptions
teaching with challenging mathematics tasks39
Teaching with Challenging Mathematics Tasks

Teachers must decide “what aspects of a task to highlight, how to organize and orchestrate the work of the students, what questions to ask to challenge those with varied levels of expertise, and how to support students without taking over the process of thinking for them and thus eliminating the challenge.” NCTM, 2000, p.19

slide40

Instructional Issues Available for Refinement at the Implementation Plateau

  • As you talk with and observe teachers who are poised on the implementation plateau, what aspects of practice do you believe teachers would value an opportunity to explore?
  • What feels challenging about professional development at this stage of implementation?
  • What feels compelling about professional development at this stage of implementation?
thanks for being such an attentive audience
Thanks for being such an attentive audience…

Contact Information:

valerie.mills@oakland.k12.mi.us

Valerie Mills easilver@umich.edu

Edward Silver