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This presentation is drawn from Benner, S. (2010). Promising Practices for Elementary Teachers: Make No Excuses . Thous PowerPoint Presentation
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This presentation is drawn from Benner, S. (2010). Promising Practices for Elementary Teachers: Make No Excuses . Thous

This presentation is drawn from Benner, S. (2010). Promising Practices for Elementary Teachers: Make No Excuses . Thous

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This presentation is drawn from Benner, S. (2010). Promising Practices for Elementary Teachers: Make No Excuses . Thous

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  1. This presentation is drawn from Benner, S. (2010). Promising Practices for Elementary Teachers: Make No Excuses. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

  2. Promising Practices for Elementary Teachers:Make No ExcusesMotivation as Intervention Susan M. Benner, Ed.D. Virginia State Reading Association Conference March 12, 2010

  3. Motivation in our own Lives • What motivates a world class athlete to compete in the Olympics? • What motivates us to engage in recreational activities, church work, volunteerism? • How motivated are you to accomplish something someone else wants you to do? • Do you find fear to be an effective motivator?

  4. What excites children and gets them eagerly engaged in learning?

  5. Will children voluntarily choose an activity that involves difficult challenges?

  6. What classroom structures do you find strengthen student motivation?

  7. Motivation: A Complex Concept Tyrell and the Animal Shelter • Challenging circumstances Work-avoidance Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation Self-efficacy Goal Learning Motivation Ego Motivation Mastery Motivation

  8. Effort and Ability: The Intersection • Young children do not distinguish between effort and ability • Older children may confuse the two • If the task requires effort, I lack ability. • ”This is hard, I don’t get it.” • It is easier to put in no effort and fail than it is to try and risk failure • “If I don’t try, then I failed because I did not try, not because I am stupid.”

  9. Valuing Academic Success • Low motivation is measured by intentions to study, perceptions of goal importance, attitudes and beliefs about outcomes • Low achievers tend to undervalue the importance of academic success, resulting in less effort • “Setting academic success as a personal goal of high importance is not likely to happen when a child does not consider him or herself capable of achieving the goal.”

  10. Setting Personal Goals • Importance of a goal to an individual • Valence—personal interest and satisfaction • Drive • Need for achievement • Intrinsic value held by the individual • Willingness • Commitment • Vested interest

  11. Teacher Influence on Motivation • Performance Goals • External benchmarks (make an A on the test) • Normative comparisons (win the spelling bee) • Learning Goals • Acquiring new knowledge and skills (read a chapter book) • What structures encourage Learning Goals versus Performance Goals?

  12. Provide substantive feedback and clarifying concepts • Give feedback as soon as possible • Do not ignore lack of effort • Link student success with effort put forth • Give students information about how to improve and master the target skills

  13. Support autonomy, cooperation, and social relatedness • Eliminate unnecessary external controls • Encourage students to set personal goals • Offer choices • Arrange cooperative learning assignments • Encourage students to support and assist one another

  14. Emphasize learning for its own sake • Emphasize independent thinking • Value the achievement of a learning goal so its achievement serves as the reward

  15. Maintain a balance between challenging material and student skill level • Provide scaffolding for challenging tasks • Give students sufficient time to complete tasks • Break down long-term goals into smaller tasks

  16. Support self-efficacy and convey the valuing of each academic discipline • Make student mistakes a learning opportunity • Do not bypass incorrect responses until a correct response is given • Give students ample opportunities to demonstrate new skills • Make links back to student real-world problems

  17. Foster positive affect • Express positive emotions about academic disciplines • Show sensitivity to students • Demonstrate kindness to students, particularly when they are struggling to master challenging material • Use humor to offset moments of tension, not ridicule or scarcasm

  18. The activity is the reward • Reading under the blanket with a flashlight • Learning the end of the story • Reading the instructions to build something • Understanding science

  19. How students understand failure influences their motivation to try • Why did I fail? • Lack of effort • Bad luck • Unfair teachers • Lack of ability “Children are attracted to activities for which they anticipate success and withdraw from those for which they predict a poor outcome.”

  20. Teacher Challenge • Get struggling students to approach reading without anticipating failure

  21. Building Intrinsic Motivation • Setting content goals • Giving students choices • Providing interesting text • Encouraging social collaboration

  22. Tyrell and the Animal Shelter • The rest of the story

  23. References Benware, C. A., & Deci, E. L. (1984). Quality of learning with an active versus passive motivational set. American educational research journal, 21, 755-765. Guthrie, J. T., & Humenick, N. M. (2007). Motivating students to read: Evidence for classroom practices that increase reading motivation and achievement. In P. McCardle & V. Chhabra (Eds.), The Voice of Evidence in Reading Research (pp. 329-354). Baltimore: Brooks. Iyengar, S. S., & Lepper, M. R. (1999). Rethinking the value of choice: A cultural perspective on intrinsic motivation. Journal of personality and social psychology, 76, 349-366. Murphy, P. K., & Alexander, P. A. (2000). A motivated exploration of motivation terminology. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 3-53. Schweinle, A., Meyer, D. K., & Turner, J. C. (2006). Striking the right balance: Students’ motivation and affect in elementary mathematics. The Journal of Educational Research, 99, 271-293. Self-Brown, S. R., & Mathews, S. (2003). Effects of classroom structure on student achievement goal orientation. The Journal of Educational Research, 97, 106-111. Sideridis, G. D., & Padeliadu, S. (2001). The motivational determinants of students at risk of having reading difficulties. Remedial and Special Education, 22, 268-279. Wigfield, A. Guthrie, J., Tonks, S., & Perencevich, K. (2004). Children's motivation for reading: Domain specificity and instructional influences. The Journal of Educational Research, 97, 299-309.