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Immunology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Immunology. Immunology. Purpose of the immune system: Discriminate self from non-self Non-self –Antigens Immunity: All mechanisms used by the host to protect itself and fight non-self. Non-Self - Antigens. Anything that can react with the participants of the immune system Ex. antibodies

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Presentation Transcript
immunology1
Immunology
  • Purpose of the immune system:
    • Discriminate self from non-self
      • Non-self –Antigens
  • Immunity:
    • All mechanisms used by the host to protect itself and fight non-self
non self antigens
Non-Self - Antigens
  • Anything that can react with the participants of the immune system
    • Ex. antibodies
  • Epitope: Characteristic of the antigen which allows its recognition as being non-self
    • Ex. Lipids, proteins, lipopolysaccharides
the antigen

Epitopes

The Antigen

Virus=Antigen

immunological diagnostic methods
Immunological Diagnostic Methods
  • Determine the presence of an antigen:
      • An organism
      • A protein
      • A toxin
      • An antibody
    • ELISA method to determine quantity
    • Immunochromatography (Rapid tests)
elisa
ELISA
  • Used to detect the presence of antigens or antibodies
    • High sensitivity
    • Quantitative
elisa1

Antigen Present

Antigen Absent

ENZ

ENZ

ENZ

ENZ

ENZ

ENZ

ENZ

ENZ

ENZ

ENZ

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

ELISA

Method

Serum (source of Ag) is added to plastic wells

Blocking agent added

Ab against Ag is added

Wash

Detecting Ab added

Wash

Substrate added

interpretation of results
Interpretation of Results
  • Serums of patients tested for the presence of HIV
    • 1o Ab anti-HIV from mouse
    • 2o Ab anti-Ab of mouse

Control serums

+ —

1/2 1/4 1/8 1/16 1/32 1/64 1/128

  • Conclusions
    • Patients 1 & 3 are positive for HIV
    • Patient 3 has a higher titer
    • Patient 2 is negative for HIV

1/8

interpretation
Interpretation

Positive NegativeInvalid