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SUCCESS OR FAILURE?. At the moment there is no doubt that the battle against malaria is being lost . This is mainly due to the ability of mosquitoes to develop immunity to pesticide sprays… …and to the Plasmodium’s ability to develop resistance to drugs. 5. KEY REVISION POINTS.

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success or failure
SUCCESS OR FAILURE?
  • At the moment there is no doubt that the battle against malaria is being lost.
  • This is mainly due to the ability of mosquitoes to develop immunity to pesticide sprays…
  • …and to the Plasmodium’s ability to develop resistance to drugs.
5 key revision points
5. KEY REVISION POINTS

(i) – THE PROBLEM

  • Anopheles Mosquito;
  • Plasmodium (e.g. Plasmodium Falciparum);
  • Humid climate; 16-40ºC, abundant rainfall;
  • Vegetation for shade;
  • Areas of still or stagnant water;
  • Humans to act as blood reservoir.
5 key revision points1
5. KEY REVISION POINTS

(ii) THE EFFECTS

  • 1-3 million deaths each year, mostly children;
  • Lost education through bouts of illness;
  • Lost productivity by adults, especially at planting and harvest time – less food, lower income;
  • Huge amount spent on trying to prevent or control malaria - $2 Billion in Africa each year, maybe $100 Billion damage to Africa’s GDP; up to 25% of family income; huge burden on health services;
  • Negative impact on foreign investment and tourism.
5 key revision points2
5. KEY REVISION POINTS

(iii) – THE SOLUTIONS

  • DDT, Malathion;
  • Genetic engineering – sterile male mosquitoes;
  • ITNs – Insecticide Treated Bed nets;
  • Draining and flushing breeding sites;
  • Larvicide sprays to kill larvae;
  • Oil, egg whites and mustard seeds;
  • Bti, Fish (Muddy Loach), Eucalyptus trees;
  • Quinine, Chloroquine, Artemisia;
  • No effective vaccines yet - several on trial;
  • World Health Organisation campaign – Roll Back Malaria.
exam advice
Exam Advice
  • Practice this topic using past papers – the questions don’t vary that much from year to year.
  • Concentrate more on the Risk Factors, Costsand the Solutions, less on the cycle of infection and medical symptoms of the disease.
  • You must be able to comment on the effectiveness of your chosen solutions, but don’t just say “very effective” for them all and hope to get marks – the markers will be looking for detailed knowledge of the effectiveness of each solution you quote.
  • Try to learn a few (four or five) solutions in detail and be able to quote names of pesticides, drugs, etc.
revision task
Revision Task
  • In groups you have been given two pieces of flipchart paper
  • Your task is to produce a biography of a mosquito and tell me why it is so well suited to spreading malaria.
  • Then design a box which you would give to a primary health care worker which would enable them to treat people in their village.