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Psycholinguisticsby Mariana De Lucamariana.firstname.lastname@example.org
Theories First Language Acquisition
Pre-linguistic stage (birth to six months): The baby cries, coos, laughs, and makes other sounds. • Babbling (six to 12 months): The baby makes nonspecific sounds from all human languages. • One-word (holophrastic) stage (1 year): The child speaks single words in isolation, in his or her first language. • Two-word stage (24 months): The child forms two-word phrases or strings that reflect the language being acquired. The vocabulary increases; the child begins to learn words at the rate of one word every two waking hours. • Telegraphic speech (30 months): Children begin to utter short phrases like telegraph messages, without formal grammatical structure. • Fluent speech (three years +): The child learns grammar and syntax (patterns of sentence formation) with surprising rapidity and accuracy; sentences increase in length and complexity. Stages in Language Aquisition
Brrrr, brrrr, bbbb, dadada, lala… Babbling
Up! Down! Cheerios! Holophrastic or Word Stage
Hi Mommy! More wet Bye bye boat Two Word Stage
Cat stand up table • What that? • Andrew want that. • No sit there. • Ride truck • Show mommy that Telegraphic Stage
I like to play with something else Look mommy, how I climb I know what to do Language Explosion
Behaviorist Cognitive Constructivist Theories of Second Language Learning
Acquisition – Learning Hypothesis • Monitor Hypothesis • Natural Order Hypothesis • Input Hypothesis • Affective Filter Hypothesis An Innatist Model: Krashen’s Input Hypothesis
Behaviorist • Language from dialogues, and drills from teachers • Structured by grammatical complexity • Similar proficiency levels • Structured repetitions and drills • Students repeat immediately • Errors corrected immediately Cognitive • Natural language from the teacher, classmates or books • Unstructured but made comprehensible by teacher • Similar proficiency levels • Language production is expected to occur naturally • Silent period • Errors not corrected Constructivist • Natural language from the teacher, classmates or books • Unstructured but focused on communication • ELL and native speakers • Speaking occurs naturally • No pressure to speak • Meaning negotiated Instructional Implications
From “Principles of Language Learning and Teaching” • Transfer, Interference, overgeneralization (pp.102,103) • Zone of Proximal Development (p.13) • Fossilization (p.270) • Codeswitching (p.139) • Interlanguage (p.256) Key terms