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Protein Synthesis & Mutations. All illustrations in this presentation were obtained from Google.com. Scientists. Who discovered the shape of the DNA molecule and was awarded the Nobel Prize?. Watson & Crick. Who used X-rays to determine what DNA really looked like?. Rosalind Franklin.

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slide1

Protein Synthesis & Mutations

All illustrations in this presentation were obtained from Google.com

slide8

Avery

Remember: Avery got an “A” for finding DNA

slide9

Who used radioactive bacteriophages (viruses) to confirm the genetic material being transferred was DNA?

Bacteriophage

(Virus)

Bacteria Cell

hershey chase bacteriophages chase after bacteria to inject their dna for infection and replication

Hershey & ChaseBacteriophages chase after bacteria to inject their DNA for infection and replication.

Real Picture of a Bacteriophage

who tried to find the genetic material but failed instead he found transformation

Who tried to find the genetic material but failed? Instead he found TRANSFORMATION.

This scientist injected mice with killed disease causing bacteria and good, live bacteria and the mice died of pneumonia.

gri ff ith f for failing to find genetic material f for finding

GriffithF for failing to find genetic material!F for finding:

TRANSFORMATION

He found that good bacteria are changed into bad bacteria with transfer of some “factor.”

slide13

Who found:

% of Adenine = % Thymine

% Cytosine = % Guanine

What is this rule called?

slide14

CHARGAFF

Chargoff’s Rule of BASE PAIRING!

slide17

1. What does DNA stand for ?2. What is its shape?3. What is its function?4. What sugar is in DNA?5. Where is it found in Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes?

slide18

1. DeoxyriboNucleic Acid2. Double Helix3. Carries the genetic code to make proteins (amino acid chain)4. Deoxyribose sugar5. Eukaryotes=nucleusProkaryotes=cytoplasm

slide24

Must have 2 identical strands of DNA

Each has

one original strand

and

one new strand

Cell Division

slide26

Original double helix unzips/unwinds

DNA Polymerase attaches to make new strand of DNA

2 New strands of DNA are created with complimentary nitrogen bases (A-T, C-G)

Two identical double helix DNAs are formed each with

one original strand and

one new strand

slide27

An original strand of DNA has these nitrogen basesC G G T A T G A TWhat are the complimentary bases for the new DNA strand after replication?What holds the nitrogen bases together to form the “steps of the ladder”?

slide28

C G G T A T G A T original strand

l l l l l l l l l

G C C A T A C T A new strand

Hydrogen Bonds

list 3 similarities and 3 differences
List 3 Similarities and 3 Differences

DNA

RNA

Similarities

Both are Nucleic Acids

Sugar Phosphate Backbones

A, C, G Nitrogen Bases

Differences

Deoxyribose Sugar Ribose Sugar

Thymine Uracil

Double Helix Single Strand

list similarities and differences
List Similarities and Differences

DNA

RNA

Similarities

Both are Nucleic Acids

Sugar Phosphate Backbones

A, C, G nitrogen Bases

Differences

Deoxyribose Sugar Ribose Sugar

Thymine base Uracil base

Double Helix Single Strand

slide33

Strawberry DNA Extraction Lab

Be able to explain the following:

Why did you use soap?

Why did you use salt?

Why did you use meat tenderizer

Why did you use cold alcohol?

slide34

Strawberry DNA Extraction Lab

Go back to your lab or look at the power point on Dr. Hensley’s web page.

You aren’t going to get the answers that easy!

slide38

mRNA- messenger RNA - brings genetic code for proteins from DNA to ribosome (recipe) tRNA – transfer RNA -brings amino acids to ribosomes (Sous chef)rRNA – ribosomal RNA- (ribosome) makes the protein (chef)

slide39

RNA

1. What does RNA stand for ?2. How many different kinds are there?3. What is its function?4. What sugar is in RNA?5. Where is RNA found?

slide40

1. What does RNA stand for ?Ribonucleic Acid2. How many different kinds are there?3: mRNA, tRNA, rRNA3. What is RNA’s function?To make proteins4. What sugar is in RNA?Ribose sugar5.Where is RNA found? In the cytoplasm

mtRNA

rRNA

mmRNA

slide42

What is the whole process of making proteins that includes transcription & translation called?

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

slide43

List the steps to make mRNA

What is this process called?

slide44

List the steps to make mRNA

“TRANSCRIPTION”

In the nucleus, DNA unzips

RNA Polymerase binds to DNA at promoter region

RNA Polymerase reads DNA genetic code (nitrogen bases) and makes complimentary mRNA and edits it

mRNA goes out of nucleus through pores

slide46

List the steps to make protein

“TRANSLATION” (comes LATer)

In the cytoplasm, rRNA attaches to mRNA

rRNA reads mRNA beginning at the AUG “START codon”

Each tRNA brings 1 amino acid to ribosome that has an anti-codon to mRNA codon until it reads a “STOP” codon

Amino acids join to form polypeptide chain =

PROTEIN

Polypeptide Chain =

PROTEIN

Amino Acid

tRNA

mRNA

rRNA

ribosome

slide51

How many amino acids are there?

How many different codons code for those amino acids?

slide52

How many amino acidsare there? 20

How many different codons code for those amino acids? 64

Remember:

Each tRNA only brings 1 amino acid to the ribosome

1 codon = 1 amino acid

3 nitrogen bases = 1 codon

slide53

Translate this mRNA

A U G U G C G U C U A A

slide56

Introns (junk) are cut out

Exons (good) are kept

slide59

Of the following mutations, which one of these is not a gene mutation?SubstitutionDeletion InsertionInversion

Gene mutation in mice.

slide60

Substitution = Point Mutation (gene)Deletion = Frame Shift Mutation (gene)Insertion = Frame Shift Mutation (gene)

Inversion = Chromosomal Mutation

I bet he can catch 3x more flies!

slide62

POINT

MUTATION

what type of gene mutation is it when a nucleotide is inserted or deleted frame shift mutation

What type of gene mutation is it when a nucleotide is inserted or deleted?FRAME SHIFT MUTATION

name all types of chromosomal mutations

Name all types of chromosomal mutations

slide67

The binding site for RNA Polymerase is called the _____________________.

?

RNA Polymerase

slide68

The binding site for RNA Polymerase is called the ______Promoter________.

RNA Polymerase

slide71

An operon is a group of genes that operate together in _____________ (type of living things)

slide72

An operon is a group of genes that operate together in PROKARYOTES!! (type of living things)

slide73

What genes control the basic plan for where organs and tissues are to go in an embryo (organism)?

slide74

Hox Genes

NOT a real picture!!!