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Blood. Chapter 12. Introduction. What is the function of blood? Blood transports substances (nutrients, oxygen, wastes, and hormones) Also maintains homeostasis in the body with hormones Hematophobia = fear of blood. Blood and Blood Cells.

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Chapter 12


  • What is the function of blood?

  • Blood transports substances (nutrients, oxygen, wastes, and hormones)

  • Also maintains homeostasis in the body with hormones

  • Hematophobia = fear of blood

Blood and blood cells
Blood and Blood Cells

  • Blood is a type of connective tissue with two basic components:

    • 1. Cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets) = 45%

    • 2. Plasma (water, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, hormones, electrolytes, and cellular wastes) = 55%



  • Hematocrit – percentage of cells in a blood sample

    • Should be 45%, remaining 55% is plasma

    • Have to centrifuge a blood sample to test this

Three types of cells
Three types of cells

  • Red blood cells - erythrocytes

  • White blood cells - leukocytes

  • Platelets - thrombocytes

Red blood cells erythrocytes
Red blood cells - erythrocytes

  • Have a biconcave shape

  • RBCC stand for red blood cell count which is the amount of blood cells in a cubic millimeter (5 million per cubic millimeter)

  • They lack nuclei in a mature stage so they will not divide



  • Hematopoiesis– formation of new blood cells (done in bone marrow)

  • Blood cells live for about 120 days, then are phagocytized by the liver and spleen


  • Erythropoietin – a hormone that is part of a negative feedback mechanisms that controls the rate of red blood cell formation

    • Produced in the liver and kidneys (controlled by oxygen levels

Main functions of red blood cells
Main functions of Red blood cells

  • Transports oxygen throughout body

    and picks up carbon dioxide

  • Hemoglobin - molecule which combines with oxygen to transport it within the blood

  • Iron is critical to the creating of hemoglobin


Oxygen levels in blood
Oxygen levels in blood

  • Oxyhemoglobin – blood has plenty of oxygen, appears bright red

  • Deoxyhemoglobin – blood is not carrying much oxygen, appears "bluish red"


White blood cells leukocytes
White blood cells – leukocytes

  • General function - defend the body against disease-causing agents (microorganisms)

  • Five different types in two groups:

    • 1. Granulocytes (granular cytoplasm): Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils

    • 2. Agranulocytes (lacking granular cytoplasm): Monocytes, Lymphocytes


1 neutrophils
1. Neutrophils

  • Very active in phagocyting bacteria

  • Are present in large amount in the pus of wounds

  • Most common make up 60% of WBC

2 eosinophils
2. Eosinophils

  • Attack parasites

  • Control allergic reaction

  • 2% WBC

3 basophils
3. Basophils

  • Produces Heparin (prevents blood clots) and Histamines (causes inflammatory reaction)

  • Less then 1% WBC

4 monocytes
4. Monocytes

  • Precursors of macrophages

  • Phagocytes

  • Make up 6% of WBCs

5 lymphocytes
5. Lymphocytes

  • Main constituents of the immune system which is a defense against the attack of pathogenic micro-organisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and protista

  • Yield antibodies and arrange them on their membrane

  • Make up 30% of WBCs

White blood cell interactive

Platelets thrombocytes
Platelets – Thrombocytes

  • Help initiate formation of blood clots,

  • They close breaks in damaged blood vessels

Blood plasma
Blood Plasma

  • The liquid portion of the blood

    • 92% water

    • transports nutrients, gases, vitamins, maintains fluid and electrolyte balance, and pH

    • Four types of proteins

      in plasma


  • Origin: Liver

  • Function: Helps maintain osmotic pressure and blood volume (blood pressure)

Alpha globulin
Alpha Globulin

  • Origin: Liver

  • Function: Transport lipids and fat – soluble vitamins

Beta globulin
Beta Globulin

  • Origin: Liver

  • Function: Transport lipids and fat – soluble vitamins

Gamma globulin
Gamma Globulin

  • Origin: Lymphatic tissue

  • Function: Constitute a type of antibody for immunity


  • Origin: Liver

  • Function: Largest molecules of plasma proteins; important for blood clotting. Major event in blood clotting is the change of fibrogen into fibrin


  • The process of stopping bleeding

  • Coagulation causes the formation of a blood clot

  • 3 Key Events

1 blood vessel spasm vasoconstriction
1. Blood Vessel Spasm (vasoconstriction)

  • Damaged or broken vessels stimulate muscle tissue in the walls of the blood vessels to contract

  • This slows or stops blood flow, lasts for several minutes.

  • Also, platelets release serotonin, a vasoconstrictor which maintains the muscle spasm even longer.


2 platelet plug formation
2. Platelet plug formation

  • Platelets stick to surfaces of damaged blood vessels and to each other to form a "plug"

3 blood coagulation
3. Blood coagulation

  • Most effective, forms a blood clot (hematoma).

  • Injury causes an increase in the release of coagulants.

  • Main event - conversion of fibrinogen into long protein threads called fibrin.




  • Thrombus - a blood clot abnormally forming in a vessel


  • Embolus - when the clot moves and becomes lodged in another place

Blood groups and transfusions
Blood Groups and Transfusions

  • Blood types are controlled by three alleles:

    • A, B, & O

  • A & B are codominant; O is recessive

  • This makes the genetics of blood very interesting

Antigens and anitbodies
Antigens and Anitbodies

  • Agglutination is the clumping of red blood cells following a transfusion reaction

  • It is due to a reaction between red blood cell surface molecules called antigens and protein antibodies carried in plasma

  • The type of antigens deternmines what blood type a person is


Blood transfusions
Blood transfusions

  • Blood that has antibodies on it that is not recognized by the body will be attacked by your immune system

  • O is the Universal Donor because a person with this type of blood does not have antigens on the surface of the blood cells

  • This will not cause an immune reaction in the patient.


Rh blood group
Rh Blood group have an immune reaction to A, B, AB, or O

  • A person can either be Rh+ (have Rh surface antigens) or Rh- (do not have Rh surface antigens)

    • Positive is the dominant genotype