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Ergogenic Aids. Ergogenic Aids. Any substance, man made or natural, that will artificially enhance performance by increasing strength, endurance, etc Who uses ergogenic aids? Placebo effects? Ethical issues?. Anabolic Steroids. Schedule III of Controlled Substances Act

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ergogenic aids1
Ergogenic Aids
  • Any substance, man made or natural, that will artificially enhance performance by increasing strength, endurance, etc
  • Who uses ergogenic aids?
  • Placebo effects?
  • Ethical issues?
anabolic steroids
Anabolic Steroids
  • Schedule III of Controlled Substances Act
  • Usage began in the 1940’s
  • Synthetic substance developed in 1953
  • IOC banned steroids in late 1960’s
  • IOC instituted testing at 1976 Summer Olympics
  • 21 FB players banned from bowl games in 1987
  • Recent increase in usage
effects of anabolic steroids
Effects of Anabolic Steroids
  • Mimics Testosterone
  • Androgenic Effects
    • male sex characteristics
    • want to limit these effects
  • Anabolic Effects
    • increase protein & creatine phosphate synthesis
    • increase muscle mass
    • increase aggressiveness

**increase oxygen carrying capacity - not proven

anabolic steroids sources
Anabolic Steroids - Sources
  • Prescription
    • anemia, replacement therapy, increase appetite, abnormal protein synthesis
    • NORMAL dose = 5-10 mg/day
  • Veterinarian
  • Black Market
anabolic steroids administration
Anabolic Steroids - Administration
  • Oral – Dianabol, Android, Anadrol, Oxandrin
    • EXCESSIVE dose = >25-50 mg/day (200 mg/day)
  • Injection – Deca-Durabolin, DEPO-Testosterone
    • EXCESSIVE dose = >100-200 mg/week
  • Programs
    • stacking - use of oral & injectable
    • pyramiding - then usage
    • cycling - on/off (6-12 wks)
anabolic steroids adverse effects
Psychological

“roid rage”

mood swings, depression, euphoria

mania, recklessness

Physical

liver toxicity

muscle cramps

acne

balding, increase hair on body

water retention

heart abnormalities

premature closure of epiphyseal growth plates

alters fat metabolism

women - masculine

Anabolic Steroids - Adverse Effects
anabolic steroids more adverse effects
increase blood pressure

increase cholesterol

increase risk of HA

increase risk of liver cancer

body stops producing testosterone

tendon injuries

illness due to contaminated needles

increase in number of injuries?

Anabolic Steroids – MoreAdverse Effects
drug testing
Drug Testing
  • Urine test
  • Test 1 hr. after announcing test
  • Masking agents – Benemid, Corticosteroids, DHEA, other substances
  • T/E Ratio
    • also measure concentration of testosterone and specific gravity
dhea dehydroepiandrosterone
DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone)
  • Natural steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands
    • converted to testosterone – anabolic effects
  • Medicinal uses – heart disease, obesity, diabetes, amount in body decreases w/age
  • Masking agent – normalizes T/E ratio
  • Available as a supplement
androstenedione
Androstenedione
  • Natural substance – produced in adrenal glands
  • Nutritional supplement
  • Anabolic effects, increase energy, enhance recovery
human growth hormone somatotropin
Human Growth Hormone(Somatotropin)
  • Hormone secreted from pituitary gland
  • Effects
    • stimulate protein synthesis
    • stimulate growth
    • increase muscle mass
    • increase strength of muscles, tendons, etc
human growth hormone
Human Growth Hormone
  • Adverse effects
    • acromegaly - large hands & feet
    • abnormal shaped head
    • increase size of heart, liver, kidneys
    • increase cholesterol
  • Alternative to steroids
    • cheaper
    • harder to detect
beta blockers beta 1 antagonists
Beta Blockers(Beta1 antagonists)
  • Decrease activity in sympathetic N.S.
  • Medical uses - hypertension, angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmias
  • Reasons for abuse by athletes
    • cardiac palpitations, decrease HR
    • muscle tremors
    • hyperventilation
    • anxiety, nervousness
blood doping
Blood Doping
  • Purpose - increase number of RBC to O2 carrying capacity
  • Technique
    • remove blood 5-6 wks. before event
    • freeze RBC
    • infuse RBC several days before event
blood doping1
Blood Doping
  • Adverse effects
    • difficult to train
    • increase viscosity of blood
  • Risks
    • risk of blood clots, HA or stroke
    • infection
    • hepatitis

**Difficult to detect

  • Eryrthropoietin(EPO) – human hormone
nutritional supplements
Nutritional Supplements
  • Pharmaceutical vs. Nutraceutical
    • vitamin, mineral, herb, amino acid, metabolite, extract
  • 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) – allowed manufacturers to distribute products w/o a prescription and outside FDA jurisdiction.
    • can only make general health statements
creatine
Creatine
  • Effects
    • increase rate of creatine resynthesis during ex.
    • recycles ATP
    • prolongs onset of fatigue - decrease lactic acid accumulation
    • increase protein synthesis, increase muscle mass
  • Adverse effects
    • cramping, muscle strains
    • kidney problems; long term effects unknown
    • weight gain
chromium
Chromium
  • Effects
    • regulates carbohydrate supply
    • assists insulin - increase transport of glucose
    • increase energy
    • increase protein synthesis, increase muscle mass
    • decrease body fat????
    • Is a trace element
    • Be aware of liver toxicity
    • Is not banned by IOC or NCAA
bicarbonate ingestion
Bicarbonate Ingestion
  • Counteracts buildup of lactic acid in anaerobic events
  • Dosage needed >300 mg/kg (>35 tablets)
  • Adverse effects – diarrhea, electrolyte imbalance
  • Is not banned
nutritional supplements1
Nutritional Supplements
  • Pyruvate - decrease body fat ?????
  • Ephedrine (Ma Huang) – increase weight loss; many side effects
  • Guarana
  • Green Tea Leaf Extract
  • Willow Bark
  • L-Carnitine – burn fat faster
nutritional supplements2
Nutritional Supplements
  • Ginseng –increase power; affects energy systems; often combined w/ ephedrine
  • L-Glutamine – increase function of immune system
  • HMB – increase muscle mass; decrease fat