Ergogenic Aids • Any substance (or food) that is believed to enhance one’s performance above normal standards • The IOC definition: “The administration or use of substances in any form alien to the body or of physiological substances in abnormal amounts and with abnormal methods by health persons with the exclusive aim of attaining an artificial and unfair increase in performance in sports”
The use substances is controversial • Large amount of athletes • Drug testing instituted to help eliminate the use of these substances • Use of these substances cannot be condoned! • Ethical violations • Competition • Health problems
Ephedra • Reduce fatigue • Increase strength, power, and speed • Decrease reaction time • Improve body composition • Research indicates that there are no beneficial effects • Side-effects • Tremors, palpitations, headache, restlessness, anxiety, and insomnia • Increases in both heart rate and blood pressure • Seizures, severe hypertension, arrhythmias, psychosis, hepatitis, stroke, myocardial injury, and intracranial hemorrhage
Caffeine • 90% of competitive athletes consume it • 60 % consume it for the purpose of enhancing performance. • Increased • Work output • Speed • Attention • Reduced perceived exertion and fatigue • Side-effects • Sleep deprivation, nausea, cramping, anxiety, fatigue, headaches, and gastrointestinal instability • Muscle tightness, muscle cramping, and dehydration
Narcotics • Beta Blockers • Diuretics • Anabolic steroids • Human Growth Hormone • Erythropoietin/Blood doping • Local Anesthetics • Creatine • What is the drug? • What does it do? • How could it help performance? • What are side-effects?
Narcotics • Masks pain caused by musculoskeletal injury, • Allows them to compete • Side-Effects of Narcotics • Nausea • Vomiting • Dizziness • Addiction • Hypotension • Drowsiness • Mood disturbances
Beta Blockers • Reduces • Blood pressure, heart rate, muscle tremors and even anxiety • Relaxing effect on muscle function • Side-effects • Severe blood sugar changes and heart failure • Interferes with performing strenuous physical activities • Nausea • Weakness when the heart cannot compensate for the body's demands
Diuretics • Increases the amount you urinate • Sports where weight is a concern • Dilute presence of drug markers in the urine • Side-effects • Life-threatening dehydration • Loss of sodium, dizziness, headaches, muscle cramps and thirst
Anabolic Steroids • Male hormone testosterone • Treat conditions that cause a loss of lean muscle mass • Help body metabolize proteins • Facilitate the development of skeletal muscle • Delay fatigue • Create a feeling of euphoria • Side-effects men • infertility, breast development, shrinking of the testicles, male-pattern baldness, severe acne and cysts • Side-effects women • Deeper voice, excessive growth of body hair, male-pattern baldness, severe acne and cysts • Other Effects of Anabolic Steroid Abuse • Delayed growth in adolescents, tendon rupture, increased LDL cholesterol, decreased HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, heart attacks, enlargement of the heart's left ventricle, cancer, jaundice, fluid retention, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, "roid rage" - rage and aggression, mania, delusions
Human Growth Hormone • Brain produces and releases growth hormones • Development and repair of cells • Proposed Benefits • Increased synthesis of muscle protein • Stimulation of bone growth • Increased fat metabolism • Decreased body fat • Increased blood glucose • Enhanced injury healing • Side-effects • Carpal tunnel syndrome • Edema • Arthritis • Atrophy, or shrinkage, of the pituitary gland
Erythropoietin (EPO) • Naturally-occurring hormone • Stimulates production of red blood cells
Blood Doping • Proposed Benefits • Improved oxygen circulation to the muscles and tissues • Increased muscle energy production • Increased muscle strength and size • Increased endurance • Reduced muscle recovery time • Side-effects • Thicken the blood • Increases the strain on the heart • Increases the risk of blood clots • Heart attacks • Strokes
Local Anesthetics • Treating inflammation and the pain and discomfort associated with inflammation • Possible Benefits • Able to play on injury area • Less pain • Side-effects • Hemorrhaging or bleeding • Mental functions impaired • Allergic reaction • Destruction of the cartilage in the joint • Nerve damage • Weakened and ruptured tendons • Thinning of the nearby bone • Increased pain and discomfort, as well as a worsening of the underlying condition
Creatine • non-essential amino acid stored in muscles for energy • formed from amino acids and plays a role in converting food into energy • kidney disease and kidney failure, water retention, nausea, diarrhea, cramping, muscle pain, and high blood pressure
Learning Log • Name a few things about any of the PED’s that you didn’t know before or that you found interesting. • Video
Preventing Drug Use In Sport • The goal of sporting organizations is to protect the health of athletes and to help ensure that competition is fair and equitable. • Sports programs should have full-service programs that provide substance abuse education, counseling, and drug-detection. • Drug testing should be performed periodically in a random manner.
Athletes, parents, coaches, athletic trainers, physicians, and administrators must be educated about the dangers of drug abuse and the fact that it has no place in sports participation and recreation. • Above all, a sports program must adopt the philosophy that “winning at all costs” is wrong. • It is essential for athletes to believe that if they do their very best and adhere to the rules of the sport, they will be doing exactly what is expected of them.