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IDEV 624 – Monitoring and Evaluation. Logical Framework for Project Design. William Bertrand, PhD. Sources: Prepared by the Payson Center for training purposes, drawing on multiple sources. Origins.

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logical framework for project design

IDEV 624 – Monitoring and Evaluation

Logical Framework for Project Design

William Bertrand, PhD

Sources: Prepared by the Payson Center for training purposes, drawing on multiple sources

origins
Origins
  • The logical framework approach was developed in the late 1960s to assist the US Agency of International Development (USAID) as a tool for:
    • Detailed planning with clearly defined objectives that can be monitored
    • Clear management responsibility
    • Pre-determined evaluation process

(MFAR/ICEIDA/UNU-FTP, Developing the Logical Frame Work Matrix)

origins cont
Origins (cont.)
  • In use since 1960’s by USAID
  • Now required by many bilateral donors such as Germany, United Kingdom, European Union, Canada and Australia

(WHO, Introduction To Logical Framework)

logical framework approach
Logical Framework Approach

Tools for Project Design and Implementation:

  • Stakeholder analysis
  • Problem analysis
  • Analysis of objectives
  • Analysis of alternatives
  • The Logical Framework Matrix (LFM)
lfa project cycle
LFA Project Cycle

(IDB, Logical Framework Approach)

stakeholder analysis
Stakeholder Analysis
  • The stakeholders table lists any group of people that are of concern to the project. These people may either be in favor of or opposed to the project.
  • The stakeholders table addresses the
    • interests,
    • resources and mandates, and
    • problems perceived for each of these groups. 
problem analysis
Problem Analysis
  • The problem tree visualizes the cause and effect relationships of the problem that the project seeks to address
  • It identifies the roots of the problem and its consequences on the various levels of analysis
  • Problem trees can come in many different shapes and can get highly complex 
slide9

Problem Tree

EFFECT

CAUSE

(UNITED NATIONS: Results-Based Management - Logical Framework Approach)

problem analysis bus example
Problem Analysis: Bus Example

Loss of confidence in bus company

Effects

Passengers hurt or killed

People are late

Frequent bus accidents

Core problem

Drivers not careful enough

Bad conditions of vehicles

Bad road conditions

Causes

Vehicles too old

No ongoing maintenance

(Jürgen Carls, Logical Framework, University of Peace)

analysis of objectives
Analysis of Objectives
  • The objective tree is directly based on the problem tree
  • Any problems identified by the problem tree are transformed into objectives
  • Consequently, the shape of the objectives tree is identical with the shape of the problem tree
slide12

Objective Tree

Ends

Means

(UNITED NATIONS: Results-Based Management - Logical Framework Approach)

relationship between the problems tree and the objective tree
Relationship Between the Problems Tree and the Objective Tree

PROBLEM TREEOBJECTIVE TREE

Focal problem Project Purpose

Effects Overall Objectives

Causes Results

(UNITED NATIONS: Results-Based Management - Logical Framework Approach)

objectives analysis bus example
Objectives Analysis: Bus Example

Customers have a better image of the bus company

Less passengers hurt

Passengers arrive at scheduled time

Frequency of bus accidents considerably reduced

Drivers drive carefully and responsibly

Vehicles kept in good condition

Road conditions improved

Old vehicles are regularly replaced

Vehicles regularly maintained and checked

(Jürgen Carls, Logical Framework, University of Peace)

analysis of alternatives
Analysis of Alternatives
  • There is no fixed format for the analysis of alternatives
  • The purpose of this tool is to systematically compare various possible intervention strategies focusing on the project's key criteria
  • The analysis of alternatives helps to choose the best approach for any intervention. This may take a form similar to the table below
logical framework matrix lfm
Logical Framework Matrix (LFM)
  • The logical framework matrix (LFM) is widely used in project development and implementation and one of its most complex tools
  • Rows:
    • Goal(s)
    • Purpose
    • Outputs/components
    • Activities
  • Columns:
    • Indicators
    • Means of verification
    • Underlying assumptions
logical framework matrix cont
Logical Framework Matrix (cont.)
  • Also known as the log frame which provides the documented product of the analytical process
  • It consists of a matrix with four columns and four rows (or more), which summarize the key elements of a project plan
    • The project's hierarchy of objectives
      • Project description or intervention logic
    • The key external factors critical to the project’s success
      • Assumptions
    • How the project’s achievements will be monitored and evaluated
      • Indicators and sources of verification

(MFAR/ICEIDA/UNU-FTP, Developing the Logical Frame Work Matrix)

logframe matrix

Objectively

Project

Sources of

verifiable

Assumptions

strategy

verification

indicators

Overall

objectives

Purpose

Results

Activities

Means

Costs

PRE CONDITION

Logframe Matrix

(MFAR/ICEIDA/UNU-FTP, Developing the Logical Frame Work Matrix)

logframe
LogFRAME

(WHO, Introduction To Logical Framework)

logframe1
LogFRAME

(WHO, Introduction To Logical Framework)

logframe2
LogFRAME

(WHO, Introduction To Logical Framework)

logframe3
LogFRAME

(WHO, Introduction To Logical Framework)

logframe4
LogFRAME

(WHO, Introduction To Logical Framework)

information contained in the logframe matrix
Information Contained in the Logframe Matrix

(MFAR/ICEIDA/UNU-FTP, Developing the Logical Frame Work Matrix)

slide25

Intervention

Logic

Verifiable

Indicators

Means of

Verification

Assumptions

Goal

To reduce population growth in a community

The reduction of the number of live births per 1000 head of population

National statistics

Data from public health and ministry of health departments

Project

Purpose

Within 5 years for those of reproductive age to have increased their uptake of Family Planning services by 30%

The number of live births recorded per annum over a 5 year period

Data from hospitals/clinics within the project area

Data from birth registration body

No overt opposition from religious or anti-abortion groups.

The community wants greater access to FP services

Expected

Results

Those of reproductive age to use family planning methods effectively

Number of attendees at FP clinic

Number of pregnancy tests carried out

Number using contraceptives

Record number at FP clinic

Number of requests for abortions

Records are available for baseline data

Activities

To recruit and train staff

To fully equip a

FP clinic

To increase the supply of contraceptives

Recruitment and training of staff to be completed within 3 months

Equipment and all supplies quantified and costed

Numbers of staff trained and retained

Number of contraceptives issued at FP clinic

That trainers are available

Equipment and supplies will be available at the start of the project

(WHO, Introduction To Logical Framework)

logframe how do we use it
Logframe – How Do We Use It?
  • The logframe is a format for presenting the results of the LFA as a process and is developed on the basis of the LFA tools applied earlier during the analysis phase
    • Clear statement of what should be accomplished (outputs)
    • Clear statement of important results that can be expected in the short to medium-term (purpose) and in the long run (goal)
  • When the logframe has been completed it is used to design further scheduling

(MFAR/ICEIDA/UNU-FTP, Developing the Logical Frame Work Matrix)

logframe in the lfa process

PESTLE analysis

Stakeholder analysis

SWOT analysis

Objective analysis

Problem analysis

Strategy analysis

Logframe in the LFA Process

The logframe matrix

Schedules

Reports

(MFAR/ICEIDA/UNU-FTP, Developing the Logical Frame Work Matrix)

the logframe structure
The Logframe Structure
  • Vertical logic
    • Identifies what the project itends to do and achieve
    • Clarifies the causal relationships (means to end)
    • Specifies important assumptions and risks
  • Horizontal logic
    • Specifies indicators to measure progress
    • Identifies the sources / means by which indicators will be verifies

(MFAR/ICEIDA/UNU-FTP, Developing the Logical Frame Work Matrix)

the logframe basics
The Logframe Basics

(MFAR/ICEIDA/UNU-FTP, Developing the Logical Frame Work Matrix)

means cost
Means & Cost
  • Means are the human, material and service resources (inputs) needed to carry out planned activities and management support activities
  • Cost are the financial resources needed to carry out these activities

(MFAR/ICEIDA/UNU-FTP, Developing the Logical Frame Work Matrix)

objectively verifiable indicators ovis
Objectively Verifiable Indicators (OVIs)
  • Objectively verifiable indicators define the performance standard to be reached in order to achieve the objective
  • They specify what evidence will tell you if an overall goal, project purpose or result/output is reachedin terms of
    • quantity how much?
    • quality how well?
    • time by when?
    • location / area where?
  • They focus on important characteristics of an objective to be achieved
  • They provide a basis for monitoring and evaluation

(Jürgen Carls, Logical Framework, University of Peace)

objectively verifiable indicators cont

Base indicator

1. Increase training in PCM within MFAR

Add quantity (how much)

2. Twenty staff of MFAR and its subdivisions receive training in PCM

Objectively Verifiable Indicators (cont.)
  • Indicators should include
    • Quantity
    • Qualities
    • Time/dates

Add quality / what kind of change

3. Training of mid level managers and professionals within MFAR in PCM increased by 20 (60 to 80) or 33,3% increase between years

Add time (by when)

4. Training in PCM of mid level managers and professionals within MFAR increased by 20 (60 to 80) by June2007 or 33,3% increase between 2007 and 2008

(MFAR/ICEIDA/UNU-FTP, Developing the Logical Frame Work Matrix)

smart
SMART
  • A good indicator should be SMART
    • Specific to the objective it is supposed to measure
    • Measurable (either quantitatively or qualitatively)
    • Available at an acceptable cost
    • Relevant to the information needs of managers
    • Time-bound so we know when we can expect the objective/target to be achieved

(MFAR/ICEIDA/UNU-FTP, Developing the Logical Frame Work Matrix)

sources of verification sov
Sources of Verification (SoV)
  • Do appropriate external sources already exist (e.g. reports, statistics)?
  • Are these sources specific enough?
  • Are the sources reliable and accessible?
  • Is the cost of obtaining the information reasonable?
  • Should other sources be created?

(MFAR/ICEIDA/UNU-FTP, Developing the Logical Frame Work Matrix)

assumptions and pre conditions
Assumptions and Pre-Conditions
  • Problems identified from the stakeholder analysis that are not tackled by the project itself
  • Macro-economic, institutional-political, ecological and socio-cultural frame conditions, which cannot easily be influenced
  • A pre-condition is different from an assumption in that it is a condition that must be fulfilled or met before project activities can start

(MFAR/ICEIDA/UNU-FTP, Developing the Logical Frame Work Matrix)

assessment of assumptions
Assessment of Assumptions

(MFAR/ICEIDA/UNU-FTP, Developing the Logical Frame Work Matrix)

killer assumptions
Killer Assumptions
  • The external factors that are essentialfor the project to achieve its objectives, but will most probably not be realisedbecome so called killer assumptions
  • If the project cannot be redesigned to achieve its objectives without having to rely on the realisation of the respective external factor it should be abandoned

(MFAR/ICEIDA/UNU-FTP, Developing the Logical Frame Work Matrix)

relationship between assumption and objective hierarchy
Relationship Between Assumption and Objective Hierarchy

(MFAR/ICEIDA/UNU-FTP, Developing the Logical Frame Work Matrix)

general sequence of completion
General Sequence of Completion

(MFAR/ICEIDA/UNU-FTP, Developing the Logical Frame Work Matrix)

monitoring and evaluation
Monitoring and Evaluation
  • Based on the logical framework
  • Strengthens accountability and transparency
  • Provides information for effective management
  • Helps determine what works well and what requires improvement
  • Builds knowledge

(UNITED NATIONS: Results-Based Management - Logical Framework Approach)

the logframe monitoring evaluation
The LogFRAMEMonitoring & Evaluation

AusAid Guidelines

(WHO, Introduction To Logical Framework)

evaluation monitoring
Evaluation & Monitoring

s

u

s

t

a

i

n

a

b

i

l

i

t

y

Goal

impact

Purpose

effectiveness

Results

efficiency

Activities

relevance

Means

Problematic Situation

Evaluation criteria

LogFRAME objective hierarchy

(WHO, Introduction To Logical Framework)

logframe advantages
LogFRAME Advantages
  • Brings together in one place a statement of the key components of a project
  • It presents them in a concise and coherent way (clarifies and shows logic of how the project is expected to work)
  • It separates the various levels in the hierarchy of objectives (helps to avoid confusion of inputs and outputs)

(WHO, Introduction To Logical Framework)

logframe advantages cont
LogFRAME Advantages (cont.)
  • It clarifies the relationships which underlie judgments about likely efficiency and effectiveness of projects
  • It identifies the main factors related to the success of the project
  • It provides a basis for monitoring and evaluation by identifying indicators of success and means of quantification or assessment
  • It encourages a multidisciplinary approach to project preparation and supervision

(WHO, Introduction To Logical Framework)

common confusion
Common Confusion
  • Logical Framework Approach is often confused with the Logical Framework Matrix
  • LFA is a project preparation methodology, whereas the log frame is a document with a special structure, produced at the end of the LFA process
  • One common misuse of LFA is to design the project first and to "fill in" the Logical Framework Matrix at the end
    • This is not recommended, as it defeats the whole purpose of the logical framework and the design methodology

(MFAR/ICEIDA/UNU-FTP, Project Design & Planning)

the logical framework approach helps
The Logical Framework Approach Helps
  • Because before starting the implementation, projects have:
    • Clearly identified stakeholders (primary target group and final beneficiaries)
    • Clearly defined coordination, management and financing arrangements
    • A monitoring and evaluation system
    • An appropriate level of financial and economic analysis

(MFAR/ICEIDA/UNU-FTP, Project Design & Planning)

slide49
How the LFA method works depends very much on it’s users

The LFA is no better and no worse than it’s users

(MFAR/ICEIDA/UNU-FTP, Project Design & Planning)