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LFA Logical Framework Approach. Goal Oriented Project Planning. Kari Örtengren Project Design AB Sweden . Project Success How?. Engagement Ownership clearly defined Clear division of responsibilities Realism!! (purpose) Connection Activities – Objectives Capacity to handle risks

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lfa logical framework approach

LFALogical Framework Approach

Goal Oriented Project Planning

Kari Örtengren

Project Design AB


project success how
Project Success How?
  • Engagement
  • Ownership clearly defined
  • Clear division of responsibilities
  • Realism!! (purpose)
  • Connection Activities – Objectives
  • Capacity to handle risks
  • Flexibility
  • Beneficiaries engaged in project planning
  • …..LFA is a useful tool to reach success!
lfa characteristics
LFA Characteristics
  • Finding the “roots” before setting the objectives
  • Objectives & beneficiary oriented
  • Participatory/Ownership!
  • Consensus oriented
  • Focus on logical links
  • Systematic common sense!!!
why lfa
Why LFA?
  • Situation and weaknesses are analysed correct solutions (activities)
  • Mistakes are avoided
  • Facilitates implementation
  • Identifies indicators of the projects achievements
the nine steps of an lfa analysis
The nine steps of an LFA analysis
  • 1 Analysis of project´s Context
  • 2 Analysis of Stakeholders
  • 3 Problem Analysis/Situation Analysis
  • 4 Objectives Analysis
  • 5 Plan of Activities
  • 6 Plan of Resources/Inputs
  • 7 Indicators/measurements
  • 8 Risk Analysis
  • 9 Analysis of Assumptions
step 1 projects context
Step 1: Projects Context
  • Changes/projects are part of a larger context/a situation
  • Which environment will the project be situated in?
  • Which factors are of importance for achieving the objectives?
  • Analysis of Context made through a study and/or through making a “SWOT” analysis
swot analysis
SWOT analysis*

A tool for auditing /identifying e.g. an environment, agency,company etc:

  • Strengths
  • Weaknesses
  • Opportunities
  • Threats

*Not LFA , SWOT is a separate method, which may be used for the analysis of the project’s Context

step 2 stakeholder analysis
Step 2: Stakeholder Analysis
  • Stakeholders - those who are influenced by and exert an influence on the project entity
  • Mapping of stakeholders and their respective roles
  • Who will be influenced, positively or negatively, by the project
  • Which stakeholders should be involved in planning and/or implementing the project
step 2 stakeholder analysis9
Step 2Stakeholder Analysis

Four main groups of stakeholders:

  • Beneficiaries
  • Implementers
  • Financing agents
  • Decision makers
problemanalysis crucial


As with weeds, the roots must be tackled, if the weeds are to disappear

step 3 problem analysis
Step 3: Problem Analysis
  • Finding “the roots of the evil”
  • Which is the problem to be solved?
  • Who owns the problem?
  • One focal problem, focus!
  • Find the causes and effects to the focal problem
  • The causes of the problem shall be “tackled” through activities within the framework of the project in order to solve the problem in a sustainable way
why a problem tree
Why a Problem Tree?

Problem Tree


Focal problem


Objective Tree

Overall objectives

Project Purpose


step 4 objectives analysis three levels
Step 4: Objectives AnalysisThree levels
  • 1 Overall Objectives/Development Objectives: Often Governmental level, long term perspective, i e social welfare, economic growth.The positive situation of the effects of the focal problem identified. Time frame: Long term, 5-10 years (e.g Living conditions of local people improved or Investments into agricultural export crops increased )
  • 2 Project objectives or Project Purpose:Which are the objectives that the intervention/project should be able to achieve. The positive solution to the focal problem, the solved focal problem. The reason why the project.is implemented. Time frame:Medium term 0-3 years (e.g River water quality improved or Road network meets traffic demands) .
  • 3 Outputs/Targets/Results:The outputs/results describe the services to be produced by the project. What services do the beneficiary get access to? Connected to the causes of the focal problem identified. Achieved through the activities. Time frame: Short term/directly after the project activities have been implemented (e.g. Direct discharge of wastewater decreased or road network expanded) .
lfa overall objectives step 4
LFA Overall Objectives Step 4
  • Long-term social and or economic benefits, to which the project will contribute
  • Not achieved by the project on its own, several projects contribute
  • States the positive state for the beneficiaries and for the society
  • Examples;

- Improved social well fare

- Economic growth in region X - Food supply stabilised

lfa project purpose step 4
LFA Project Purpose, Step 4
  • The main reason for having a project ! WHY a project
  • Connection to the “focal” problem
  • Sets out the benefits, which the beneficiaries derive from the project
  • Implementing agencies should enable for the beneficiaries to achieve the benefits by delivering the required services/results
  • Examples;

- Improved labour productivity for crop X achieved..,

- Health hazards (for certain diseases) of the population in area X reduced to a certain standard- River water quality improved etc...

lfa results step 4
LFA Results Step 4
  • Connected to the causes of the focal problem
  • Sets out the services which the beneficiaries will receive from the implementing agency through the project
  • Examples;

- Farmers able to apply more efficient maize production techniques,

- Adequate mother and child care provided to the people in region X,

- Improved transport between A and B

smart project purpose
SMART project purpose
  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Accurate or Approved
  • Realistic
  • Time bound
step 5 activities
Step 5: Activities
  • Tackle the causes of the focal problem
  • What will be done under the project to deliver the services/results required by the beneficiaries
  • Usually expressed as an action
  • Means to achieve the objectives, not the objectives
  • Examples;

-Rehabilitate health posts, - Train rural health staff,- Re-construct road from A to B

step 6 inputs resources
Step 6: Inputs/Resources
  • Experts and personnel (local and foreign, counter part, project group)
  • Financing (loans, grants, funds) cost sharing? Future long term financing?
  • Equipment
  • Premises
step 7 indicators measure achievements
Step 7: Indicators Measure achievements
  • A baseline study might be needed to be able to measure the final results?
  • The process of setting up indicators shows if the objectives are vague
  • Indicators should answer the questions:

For whom? What? When? Where? How much? What quality?

step 8 risk analysis
Step 8: Risk Analysis
  • Analysis of factors which may influence the implementation of the project and hence the achievement of objectives
  • Internal and External risks
  • Alternative strategies may be needed?
  • Risk management !!!
step 9 analysis of assumptions
Step 9: Analysis of Assumptions
  • The project in the perspective of society/ institutional situation in a country (laws, political commitments, financing)
  • Assumptions describe situations and conditions, which are necessary for project success, but which are largely beyond the control of the project management
  • Assumptions on each level of objective (results, project purpose and overall objectives)
  • Examples: Delivery in time of equipment, at least five of the trained personnel stays within the company for 5 more years, prevailed stable political situation
why different steps in lfa
Why different steps in LFA?
  • Relevance; Step 1 – 4 Context, Stakeholder-, Problem- and Objectives analysis. Logical links between problems and solutions, Relevant to support? (in accordance with strategies and problems in the country/sector?)
  • Feasible; Step 5 – 7 Plan of Activities, Resources/inputs and Indicators. Are the resources sufficient to achieve the objectives? (Resources: Personnel, time, funding, equipment)
  • Sustainable; Step 8 – 9 Risk analysis and Assumptions. If the project is sustainable, will the effects of the project remain without continuos external assistance outside?
internet information on lfa
Internet information on LFA

www.google.com/logical framework approach






lfa summary
LFA summary
  • Relevant, Feasible and Sustainable projects/programs - success!
  • Participation & ownership!
  • Joint approach to project
  • Make problem analysis with accuracy /time to correctly analyze causes & effects
  • Connection problems and objectives
  • Add analysis such as cost effectiveness and gender, study on environmental aspects and make a clear division of responsibilities
  • LFA during all phases of the project
how the lfa method works depends on its users

How the LFA method works depends on its users

LFA is no better and no worse than its users


Why GOPP (LFA) workshop ?

  • Relevant, feasible and sustainable projects.
  • To overcome major errors in planning structure!
  • All key stakeholders participation & efficiency, correct situation analysis correct solutions (activities)
  • Shared understanding of the situation and of different needs and interest - transparency !
  • Ownership and responsibility

LFA STEPS in a workshop

  • PLAN of ACTIVITIES (overall “brainstorming” ideas)
  • LFA/GOPP WORKSHOP answers WHAT TO DO, not HOW. The detailed planning is made later by the project group