《英汉语篇翻译教程》 著者：范守义、郭立秋、贾令仪 2011年6-9月
译文讲评：Text A (PPT v 2.0) Text A: GLOBAL IMAGE OF THE U.S. WORSENING, Survey Finds Passage 7:
The Center & Its Projects • The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan "fact tank" that provides information on the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world. It does not take positions on policy issues. Its work is carried out by these seven projects:
The Pew Research Center for the People & the Press • This is an independent public opinion survey research project that studies attitudes toward the press, politics and public policy issues. It is best known for regular national surveys that measure public attentiveness to major news stories, and for polling that charts trends in values and fundamental political and social attitudes.
Project for Excellence in Journalism • The Pew Research Center's Project for Excellence in Journalism is a research organization that specializes in using empirical methods to evaluate and study the performance of the press.
Pew Internet & American Life Project • The Pew Internet Project conducts original research that explores the impact of the internet on children, families, communities, the work place, schools, health care and civic/political life. It seeks to be an authoritative source for timely information on the internet's growth and societal impact.
The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life • The Pew Research Center's Forum on Religion & Public Life, launched in 2001, seeks to promote a deeper understanding of issues at the intersection of religion and public affairs. The Pew Forum conducts surveys, demographic analyses and other social science research on important aspects of religion and public life in the U.S. and around the world. It also provides a neutral venue for discussions of timely issues through roundtables and briefings.
Pew Hispanic Center • The Pew Hispanic Center's mission is to improve understanding of the U.S. Hispanic population and to chronicle Latinos' growing impact on the nation. The Center conducts social science research, including economic, demographic and public opinion studies.
Pew Global Attitudes Project • Since it began in 2001, the Pew Global Attitudes Project has conducted a series of worldwide public opinion surveys on an array of subjects, from people's assessments of their own lives to their views on the current state of the world and important issues of the day.
Social & Demographic Trends • The Pew Research Center's Social & Demographic Trends project studies behaviors and attitudes of Americans in key realms of their lives, including family, community, health, finance, work and leisure. The project explores these topics by combining original public opinion survey research with social, economic and demographic data analysis.
A "Fact Tank" • Through these seven projects, the Center provides facts and data that help inform the national dialogue. Unlike many think tanks, the Center does not make policy recommendations. As the Center's President, Andrew Kohut, said when the group was launched in 2004, "It's more a 'fact tank' than a think tank. It's a new kind of Washington organization that collects information and disseminates it in an understandable and analytical way, rather than producing expert opinion on policy subjects." The Center's work is often cited by policy-makers, journalists and academics, as well as advocates from across the political spectrum.
Andrew Kohut • President, Pew Research Center
Andrew Kohut • Andrew Kohut is the president of the Pew Research Center. He also acts as director of the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press (formerly the Times Mirror Center for the People & the Press) and the Pew Global Attitudes Project. He was President of The Gallup Organization from 1979 to 1989. In 1989, he founded Princeton Survey Research Associates, an attitude and opinion research firm specializing in media, politics, and public policy studies. He served as founding director of surveys for the Times Mirror Center 1990-1992, and was named its Director in 1993. He is a past president of American Association of Public Opinion Research and the National Council on Public Polls.
In 2005, he received the American Association of Public Opinion Research's highest honor, the Award for Exceptionally Distinguished Achievement. He is a frequent press commentator on the meaning and interpretation of opinion poll results and the co-author of four books, including, mostly recently, America Against the World (Times Books). He received an A.B. degree from Seton Hall University in 1964 and studied graduate sociology at Rutgers, the State University, from 1964 to 1966.
第2段第1句 • 以及本文其他段落中，positive这个词多次出现。我们均使用了“正面”这个词组。positive这个词可以与很多名词搭配，如 positive view, positive result, positive outcome, positive contribution, 等等。这些词语在翻译成中文时，往往会使用“积极”这个词，这是我们在改革开放之前选择使用的词。我们感觉“积极”是对“消极”而言，是个态度、行为问题；而“正面”是对“负面”而言，是个评价、肯定或者否定的问题。因此，是使用“正面”还是使用“积极”来翻译positive，我们要根据上下文的具体语境斟酌使用。关于这个词的各个义项及其定义和用法，我们参考一下还是很有用处的： … they had a positive opinion，
pos•i•tive adj. 1. Characterized by or displaying certainty, acceptance, or affirmation: a positive answer; positive criticism. 2. Measured or moving forward or in a direction of increase or progress. 3. Explicitly or openly expressed or laid down: a positive demand. 4. Admitting of no doubt; irrefutable: positive proof. 5. a. Very sure; confident: I’m positive he’s right. See Synonyms at sure. b. Overconfident; dogmatic. 6. Formally or arbitrarily determined; prescribed.
pos•i•tive 7. Concerned with practical rather than theoretical matters. 8. Composed of or characterized by the presence of particular qualities or attributes; real. 9. Philosophy a. Of or relating to positivism. b. Of or relating to laws imposed by human authority rather than by nature or reason alone: “the glaring discrepancy between American positive law and natural rights” (David Brion Davis). c. Of or relating to religion based on revelation rather than on nature or reason alone. 10. Informal Utter; absolute: a positive darling.
11. Mathematics a. Relating to or designating a quantity greater than zero. b. Relating to or designating the sign (+). c. Relating to or designating a quantity, number, angle, or direction opposite to another designated as negative. 12. Physics Relating to or designating an electric charge of a sign opposite to that of an electron. 13. Medicine Indicating the presence of a particular disease, condition, or organism: a positive test for pregnancy. 14. Biology Indicating or characterized by response or motion toward the source of a stimulus, such as light: positive tropism. 15. Having the areas of light and dark in their original and normal relationship, as in a photographic print made from a negative. 16. Grammar Of, relating to, or being the simple uncompared degree of an adjective or adverb, as opposed to either the comparative or superlative. 17. Driven by or generating power directly through intermediate machine parts having little or no play: positive drive.
n. 1. An affirmative element or characteristic. 2. Mathematics A quantity greater than zero. 3. Physics A positive electric charge. 4. A photographic image in which the lights and darks appear as they do in nature. 5. Grammar a. The uncompared degree of an adjective or adverb. b. A word in this degree. 6. Music A division of some pipe organs, similar in sound to the great but smaller and less powerful.
第3段第2句 • fa•vor•a•bleadj. 1. Advantageous; helpful: favorable winds. 2. Encouraging; propitious: a favorable diagnosis. 3. Manifesting approval; commendatory: a favorable report. 4. Winning approval; pleasing: a favorable impression. 5. Granting what has been desired or requested: a favorable reply. 6. Indulgent or partial: listened with a favorable ear. In Turkey, only 12 percent said they held a favorable opinion, down from 23 percent last year.
第4段第1句 • 这是程度的比较，有否定的含义。 Declines were less steep in France, Germany and Jordan，
第6段第1句 • 这里是程度的比较。 … most people said the war in Iraq posed more of a danger to world peace.
第7段 • 句中的as say就是‘such as say’ or ‘such as say for example’，久而久之在日常用语中就简化成as say。 … the U.S. presence in Iraq is a threat to world peace as say that about Iran …
Sap • n. A covered trench or tunnel dug to a point near or within an enemy position. • v., sapped, sap•ping, saps. v.tr. • To undermine the foundations of (a fortification). • 2. To deplete or weaken gradually. v. intr. To dig a sap. it’s a measure of how much Iraq is sapping good will to the United States,” said Andrew Kohut, president of the Pew Research Center.
第8段 • sentimentn 1. susceptibility to tender, delicate, or romantic emotion she has too much sentiment to be successful 2. (often plural) a thought, opinion, or attitude 3. exaggerated, overindulged, or mawkish feeling or emotion The latest declines came after a year in which anti-American sentiment had slightly receded, aided by good feeling over aid for tsunami victims and political progress in Iraq.
sentiment 4. an expression of response to deep feeling, esp in art or literature 5. a feeling, emotion, or awareness a sentiment of pity 6. a mental attitude modified or determined by feeling there is a strong revolutionary sentiment in his country 7. a feeling conveyed, or intended to be conveyed, in words [from Medieval Latin sentīmentum, from Latin sentīre to feel]
再比较另外一个词典的解释： • sen•ti•ment noun 1. a : an attitude, thought, or judgment prompted by feeling : predilection b : a specific view or notion : opinion 2 a : emotion b : refined feeling : delicate sensibility especially as expressed in a work of art c : emotional idealism d : a romantic or nostalgic feeling verging on sentimentality 3 a : an idea colored by emotion b : the emotional significance of a passage or expression as distinguished from its verbal context
Examples of SENTIMENT • His criticism of the court’s decision expresses a sentiment that is shared by many people. • an expression of antiwar sentiments • She likes warmth and sentiment in a movie. • You have to be tough to succeed in the business world. There’s no room for sentiment. • Origin of SENTIMENT French or Medieval Latin; French, from Medieval Latin sentimentum, from Latin sentire First Known Use: 1639
第9段 • Abu Musab al-Zarqawi是阿拉伯人名，一般情况下我们按照中文媒体报道中，所使用的译名即可，这个名字媒体上就是使用“扎卡维”。
阿拉伯人名 • 阿拉伯人名通常都由多节组成，比较长。其排列顺序一般是：第一节为本人名，第二节为父名，第三节为祖父名，第四节以上为家族、部落、出生地、职业等名称。如沙特阿拉伯前国王哈立德的全名是：哈立德·本·阿卜杜勒·阿齐兹·本·阿卜杜勒·拉赫曼·本费萨尔·沙特（Khaled Ben Abdel Aziz Ben Abdel Rahman Ben Faysal Al Saoud），其中“哈立德”为本人名，“费萨尔”是曾祖父名，“沙特”为家族名。简称时可只称本人的名字“哈立德”。不过，在国际交往中，每个阿拉伯人的简称常常不是第一节。如埃及前总统加麦尔·阿卜杜勒·纳赛尔（Gamal Abdel Nasser），简称时用“纳赛尔”，而“纳赛尔”并非本人名。其所以如此，是由于受西方国家把姓氏放在名字之后的误解造成的。实际上，阿拉伯人并没有姓。阿拉伯人名各节之间常有Al、El、Ben（本）、Ibn（伊本）、Ould（乌尔德）、Abu（阿布）等词出现。Al，El为阿文冠词，汉译时省略。Ben（本）、Ibn（伊本）、Ould（乌尔德）意思是“某某之子”，Abu（阿布）意思是“某某之父”，不过在人名中，Abu也有转化为人名的一部分，而不表示“父亲”之意的情况。更多的情况可以上网去查，如，http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_name，也可以请百度帮忙。Mus’ab (after Mus’ab ibn 'Umayr - the martyr of Uhud)
第10段 • 其中negative在中文里，可以有否定的、反面的、消极地、负面的几种译法，要根据上下文来决定。这里翻译成“负面的”，表示一种评价。我们参看一下这个词的各个义项的定义，仔细分辨该词的细微语义差异。 … their largely negative feelings about President Bush，
neg·a·tive adj. 1. a. Expressing, containing, or consisting of a negation, refusal, or denial: gave a negative answer to our request. b. Indicating opposition or resistance: a negative reaction to the new advertising campaign. 2. Lacking positive or constructive features, especially: a. Unpleasant; disagreeable: had a negative experience on his first job. b. Gloomy; pessimistic: a negative outlook. c. Unfavorable or detrimental: a negative review; a negative effect on the child’s development. d. Hostile or disparaging; malicious: ran a negative campaign against her opponent. 3. Medicine Not indicating the presence of a particular disease, condition, or organism. 4. Logic Designating a proposition that denies agreement between a subject and its predicate.
neg·a·tive 5. Mathematics a. Of or relating to a quantity less than zero. b. Of or relating to the sign (-). c. Of or relating to a quantity to be subtracted from another. d. Of or relating to a quantity, number, angle, velocity, or direction in a sense opposite to another of the same magnitude indicated or understood to be positive. 6. Physics a. Of or relating to an electric charge of the same sign as that of an electron, indicated by the symbol (-). b. Of or relating to a body having an excess of electrons. 7. Chemistry Of or relating to an ion, the anion, that is attracted to a positive electrode. 8. Biology Moving or turning away from a stimulus, such as light: a negative tropism.
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