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Training and training need analysis. B.V.L.Narayana SPTM/RSC BRC. Introduction . Training Is essential and is a very big industry Enhances productivity of individuals Enables development of competencies in line with organizational objectives Allows communication of organizational goals

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training and training need analysis

Training and training need analysis



  • Training
    • Is essential and is a very big industry
    • Enhances productivity of individuals
    • Enables development of competencies in line with organizational objectives
    • Allows communication of organizational goals
    • Enhances career progression and self development
    • Provision aimed at creating intentional learning processes
    • To bring about semi permanent change in individuals –Knowledge, attitudes. Skills and habits (KASH)—behaviors
    • With an intention To enhance performance on the job
  • d/d education –is more in general knowledge; training teaches a specific task or function
  • Training and development
    • 5 stages
training need analysis
Training need analysis
  • TNA
    • Determine organizational training needs
    • Whether organizational needs, objectives and problems can be addressed by training?
    • Influences overall effectiveness of training
    • Is used to specify key features of implementation and evaluation
training need analysis6
Training need analysis
  • TNA
    • Is a three step process
      • Organizational analysis—identify needs
      • Task analysis- content of training
      • Person analysis- who to be trained
    • Need analysis must cover all three steps
    • Research shows
      • Impact maximum on learning if organizational analysis done
      • Impact maximum on behavioral outcomes if task analysis done
training need analysis7
Training need analysis
  • Work and research mostly done
    • Task analysis
      • Consists of cognitive tasks

Cognitive capacities and cues -how and when to apply them

      • and behavioral tasks
        • Identify competencies needed for jobs
          • Competencies are cluster of interrelated knowledge, skills, values, attitudes and others which are important for successful job performance
      • Done for individual and teams
training need analysis8
Training need analysis
  • TNA
    • Organizational level and person level analysis—neglected
    • Look at diversity and cross cultural training at requirements
    • Also must look at
      • Concurrent needs and Future needs
      • Look to identify specific and generic skills
    • Therefore requires a data base of competencies-collect data on organization, task and person characteristics
training need analysis9
Training need analysis
  • TNA
    • What needs to be identified at a generic level
      • Knowledge-facts about objects, relationships, rules, procedures, plans, goals and self knowledge
      • Observable skills –cognitive, psychomotor, physical, interpersonal, expressive and self management
      • Problem solving skills-heuristics, means –ends analysis, pattern matching, meta-cognition, transfers
      • Attitudes and beliefs– self efficacy, racial, cultural, sexist, commitment
  • Groups of methods used in training
    • Information presentation
    • Modeling- demonstration
    • Information presentation and learner response—case method
    • Systematic response generation—contextualizing the training
    • Simulation
    • On the job training
training needs analysis
Training needs analysis
  • Process of TNA
    • Organizational analysis
      • Determines appropriateness of training-linked to orgn. Goals, strategies, resources
        • First needs an understanding of the organizational environment—
          • technical,
          • others
        • Measures work environment characteristics-
          • nature of support and
          • emphasis on training
training needs analysis12
Training needs analysis
  • Task analysis
    • Identify observable tasks performed and knowledge and skills required to do it-job analysis
    • Do it by
      • Job incumbents –develop lists of tasks performed
      • Assessors –grouping tasks into clusters based on similarity
      • Managers – generating KSA for each cluster of tasks
      • Surveys to validate these Task, task cluster and KSA’s
      • Use multiple assessors and multiple surveys
training needs analysis13
Training needs analysis
  • Task analysis
      • At individual and team level
    • Cognitive task analysis
      • Goals, decisions and judgments made on the job-use elicitation techniques-look at thought processes
    • Team task analysis
      • Simultaneous assessment of task and coordination requirements
    • Lists out the objectives for training programmes—specify what a trainee will be able to do at the end of training programme
training need analysis14
Training need analysis
  • Person analysis
    • whether training is necessary so that employees can perform tasks effectively
      • Identify reasons for poor performance-training and non training needs
    • Who requires training
      • Look at employee records
      • Elicit self responses
    • Whether trainees are ready for training
      • Audit of basic skills, abilities and motivations of potential trainees—helps reorient training programmes
      • Assess language skills
training needs analysis15
Training needs analysis
  • TNA—Organization –task-person model
    • should be proactive
    • Done on a continuous basis
    • Helps allocate training resources
  • Human performance intervention model
    • Is a problem solving exercise—identify root cause and plan intervention
training needs analysis16
Training needs analysis
  • Assessment centers
    • Is a skills evaluation process
    • Used in
      • Selection and placement
      • Employee skill development
      • Career development
      • Organizational succession planning
    • Good assessment centre can
      • Good job preview
      • Help design training programmes
      • Identify potential successors
assessment centers
Assessment centers
  • Essential elements
    • Job analysis-
      • critical, relevant and observable performance elements and competency categories
    • Behavioral classification
      • Dimensions, skills, competencies, abilities
    • Multiple assessments-techniques
    • Assessment techniques
      • Allow behaviors revealing critical competencies to be observed
    • Simulations
      • –demonstrates observable behavior
assessment centres
Assessment centres
  • Essential elements
    • Assessors
      • Multiple assessors-not immediate supervisors-diversity enabled
    • Assessor training
      • Demonstrate competence in role
    • Recording behavior
      • Document through notes
    • Reports- based on notes
    • Data integration –pooling of all observations
  • Is a multi day affair and done in groups
  • Assessors are higher level managers, experts, psychologists