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Nepal in Transition and Transformation • United but Victory of Elitist, Autocratic and Samantabadi (oligarchy) Forces in 1768 • Consolidation by the Same Kind of Forces (Rana Take Over in 1846) • Looting of Resources and Enhancing Power of Own Family Members and Cronies • A System of Chakari, Chukli, Chaplusi and Jaal, Jhel, Kapat Developed and Promoted
Democratic Innovation • Overthrown of the Ranas in 1951 • Political Intrigues Initiated Instead of Power or Sovereignty to People • Development of Constitution in 1959 with Giving Supreme Power to the King • King Used all Political Leaders as Pawns to Discredit Them
The First Elected Government was Thrown Own and Political Parties Banned in 1960 • Partyless Panchayat Polity Introduced in 1962 • The Same Undemocratic Forces Ruled Nepal Until 1990 • People’s Movement Threw Out Undemocratic Forces and Established Multi-Party Democratic System
Political Parties Started Games for Themselves Not for People • Government were Changed Very Often • The Maoists Went Underground after Their 34 Demands were not Considered in 1996 • Royal Massacre in 2001and Emergence of 1951-60 Situation • Take Over by the King in 2005 and Proclamation of Emergency
Farce Municipal Elections in 2006 • Undeclared Civil War • Political Parties totally Demoralized: No Interest and Participation of People in Their Protest Rallies • Strikes, Fighting, Blockades: a day-to-day phenomena • Urban Areas under Control of Military and Rural Areas with Maoists. • Maoists Have Their Own People’s Government
Buying out Politicians and Influential People • Squandering Money, Loot and Embezzlement Everywhere • Unnecessary Show of Forces and Support • People Lost Faith
New Initiatives • 12 Point Accord Between the Maoists and the Seven Party Alliance in March • Maoists Increase Attacks in Army Camps and Government Installations • Substantial Number of People Taking Part in Sporadic Strikes and Protest Rallies • Government Putting People in Custodies
Proclamation of General Strike by Alliance from April 6th. • Millions Show Up All Over Nepal in Spite Of Emergencies • The Main Slogan was “Gyane Chor Desh ChhoD” • Royal Proclamation On April 21st After Meeting with the Indian Special Envoy • Not Accepted by Alliance
10 Million People Ready to Move to Royal Palace on April 24th Mid-Night • Royal Proclamation at 11.30PM Reinstating Parliament and Giving Sovereign Power to People • Royalty and Undemocratic Forces Defeated by the People’s Power.
A New Beginning • House Restored on April 25th • Koirala Appointed as PM on April 27th • House Endorses the Election for the Constituent Assembly and Curtail of Power of the King on April 30th. • Negotiation Teams Formed Both by the Government and Maoists • 25 Point Code of Conduct and Eight Point Negotiation Signed
Confusion • Parties in Government Want to Stay on • Maoists Are in a Hurry to Join an Interim Government • An Interim Constitution is Being Drafted but Delayed • Problem in Arms and Army Management • Moriarty’s Threats Did not Help but Created Confusion
What Next? • If Present Situation Remains, the Maoists Plan to Go Back to Jungle • The Alliance is Under Pressure from Outside Forces to Keep Maoists Out of Government • Maoists have Shown Mature Politics and Won Over People’s Mind • Political Parties Have No Confidence for Winning Elections
Outside Forces Joining Hands with Status Quo to Keep Royalty in Nepal • 70% Population Against Kingship • How to Face the Constituent Assembly???