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FC.62 THE RISE OF THE ITALIAN CITY-STATES (c.800-1100) PowerPoint Presentation
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FC.62 THE RISE OF THE ITALIAN CITY-STATES (c.800-1100)

FC.62 THE RISE OF THE ITALIAN CITY-STATES (c.800-1100)

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FC.62 THE RISE OF THE ITALIAN CITY-STATES (c.800-1100)

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  1. FC.62 THE RISE OF THE ITALIAN CITY-STATES (c.800-1100) Survival of many Italian cities in early Middle Ages, largely as religious & defense centers ruled by bishops Italian bishops summon German ruler Otto I vs Frankish nobles (961) Italian cities take offensive vs. Muslim raiders Pope crowns Otto I Roman emperor Ger. is core of Holy Roman Empire Central position for trade with rich Byzantine & Muslim civ’s More peace & order in Italy by 1000 overseen by a strong German emperor as Frankish nobles are cleared out & Muslim raids let up Rising middle class which clashes w/bishops & eventually replaces them as main power in N. Italian cities Frankish nobles go to bishops for support vs each other Bishops gain more rights & privileges as the price of their support: Right to build fortifications Right to raise taxes for building fortifications Judicial power to raise taxes Growing power & opposition of bishops vs troublesome Frankish nobles Frankish nobles left in Italy after the collapse of Charlemagne’s Empire fight each other for power over Italian countryside Older more deeply rooted cities from the Roman Empire (FC.33) Byzantines guard some Italian towns such as Venice (FC.44) Cities, esp. Rome under the popes, call in Charlemagne vs. Lombards Franks take over N. Italy (FC.40) Spread of towns & trade to rest of W. Europe (FC.64)

  2. FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  33% more land farmed Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland Cross breeding  Larger farm horses Heavy plow Cuts deep rich soils of N. Eur. Horse collar  Can pull heavier load from chest Horseshoe  Hooves don’t crack from wet soil No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands Furrows Some crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animals Peasants share plow teams More food Develop new lands Population growth Serfs scatter & divide land in strips  All get at least some land plowed in time Horse’s speed along w/th 4-wheeled wagon 2X area can supply food to towns Able to support revival of towns, trade & kings (FC.64)

  3. FC.64 THE RISE OF TOWNS IN WESTERN EUROPE (c.1100-1300) Rise of towns in W. Europe Buy mercenaries Can crush vassals w/o towns or $ Lords get taxes from towns Rise of trade fairs in the safer conditions Incentive for nobles to ensure safe travel Nobles holding trade fairs make $$ King is seen as chosen by God More peace & polit. stability Inflation Church corruption to meet expenses Increasing trade Inflation Nobles sell freedom to serfs for quick $ Revival of learning in Med. universities Italian merchants expand trade into NW Europe & attend French trade fairs Rising class of townsmen who try to get freedom by: King is seen as supreme judge Allying w/king vs their lords Fighting lords for it Buying it from lords Cistercian monks trade wool to Flemish merch’s who attend French trade fairs Chaos of early Middle Ages Feudalism More stability (FC.41) Agr. rev. supports more pop. (FC.63) Viking raids let up by 1000 (FC.42) Italian cities survive & revive (FC.62) Church reform & corruption cycle (FC.41) Decline of nobles, esp. after Black Death (FC.71A) Decline of Church, esp. after Black Death (FC.72) Rise of kings w/$ Can buy full-time mercenaries & bureaucratsBasis for rise of nation states (FC.79) Contact w/Muslim Spain (FC.46B) Contact w/Muslim Spain (FC.46B) Basis for Italian Renaissance (FC.76)

  4. Control quality, advertising & prices Guilds protect members vs. outside competition Town leagues to guard vs. raids & tolls Credit  Can use more $ than they have cash  Much larger scale trade Set standard coinage, weights & measures Trade routes shift to the Atlantic & away from leagues, esp. Hanseatic League in North. & Baltic Seas Keep control of trade routes & sea lanes Control & limit membership through training of their apprentices Less need for leagues since kings can protect towns & trade Control wages, hours, & work conditions Trade & economy continue to improve along with more stable political conditions Decline of leagues & guilds because of competition from strong national monarchies, shifting trade routes, & capitalist practices Less need for guilds’ controlled econ’s & restrictive memberships FC.65 THE RISE OF GUILDS AND LEAGUES Insecure & limited trade & business when towns revive (FC.64) Eur. Exploration of Africa, Asia, & Americas (FC.80) Merchants set up cottage industries Undersell guilds Rise of capitalism (FC.75) Growing competition from kings building strong centralized states in 1400s & 1500s (FC.79)

  5. High Middle Ages Review Bowl

  6. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it?

  7. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection

  8. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of towns gaining indep?

  9. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep.

  10. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue?

  11. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany

  12. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands

  13. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74%

  14. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward?

  15. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962

  16. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp?

  17. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2.Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp? Legnano in 1176

  18. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp? Legnano in 1176 Tossup: How did Genoa & Pisa get started in business?

  19. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp? Legnano in 1176 Tossup: How did Genoa & Pisa get started in business? Defeated pirates & sacked their city in N. Africa=> Invested the plunder in trade.

  20. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp? Legnano in 1176 Tossup: How did Genoa & Pisa get started in business? Defeated pirates & sacked their city in N. Africa=> Invested the plunder in trade. 3. What were magnates?

  21. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp? Legnano in 1176 Tossup: How did Genoa & Pisa get started in business? Defeated pirates & sacked their city in N. Africa=> Invested the plunder in trade. 3. What were magnates? The “Great Ones” in Ital. Soc., a combination of old nobles & rich MC

  22. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp? Legnano in 1176 Tossup: How did Genoa & Pisa get started in business? Defeated pirates & sacked their city in N. Africa=> Invested the plunder in trade. 3. What were magnates? The “Great Ones” in Ital. Soc., a combination of old nobles & rich MC 4. What were quarters?

  23. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp? Legnano in 1176 Tossup: How did Genoa & Pisa get started in business? Defeated pirates & sacked their city in N. Africa=> Invested the plunder in trade. 3. What were magnates? The “Great Ones” in Ital. Soc., a combination of old nobles & rich MC 4. What were quarters? Areas of a city where another city’s merchants could live under their own laws

  24. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp? Legnano in 1176 Tossup: How did Genoa & Pisa get started in business? Defeated pirates & sacked their city in N. Africa=> Invested the plunder in trade. 3. What were magnates? The “Great Ones” in Ital. Soc., a combination of old nobles & rich MC 4. What were quarters? Areas of a city where another city’s merchants could live under their own laws 5. Venice's early history?

  25. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp? Legnano in 1176 Tossup: How did Genoa & Pisa get started in business? Defeated pirates & sacked their city in N. Africa=> Invested the plunder in trade. 3. What were magnates? The “Great Ones” in Ital. Soc., a combination of old nobles & rich MC 4. What were quarters? Areas of a city where another city’s merchants could live under their own laws 5. Venice's early history? Marshy refuge vs. invaders=> came under Byz. Protection=> Dev. Salt &glass

  26. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp? Legnano in 1176 Tossup: How did Genoa & Pisa get started in business? Defeated pirates & sacked their city in N. Africa=> Invested the plunder in trade. 3. What were magnates? The “Great Ones” in Ital. Soc., a combination of old nobles & rich MC 4. What were quarters? Areas of a city where another city’s merchants could live under their own laws 5. Venice's early history? Marshy refuge vs. invaders=> came under Byz. Protection=> Dev. Salt &glass Tossup: Patron saint & how they got his remains?

  27. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp? Legnano in 1176 Tossup: How did Genoa & Pisa get started in business? Defeated pirates & sacked their city in N. Africa=> Invested the plunder in trade. 3. What were magnates? The “Great Ones” in Ital. Soc., a combination of old nobles & rich MC 4. What were quarters? Areas of a city where another city’s merchants could live under their own laws 5. Venice's early history? Marshy refuge vs. invaders=> came under Byz. Protection=> Dev. Salt &glass Tossup: Patron saint & how they got his remains? St. Mark; smuggled out in a pork barrel

  28. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp? Legnano in 1176 Tossup: How did Genoa & Pisa get started in business? Defeated pirates & sacked their city in N. Africa=> Invested the plunder in trade. 3. What were magnates? The “Great Ones” in Ital. Soc., a combination of old nobles & rich MC 4. What were quarters? Areas of a city where another city’s merchants could live under their own laws 5. Venice's early history? Marshy refuge vs. invaders=> came under Byz. Protection=> Dev. Salt &glass Tossup: Patron saint & how they got his remains? St. Mark; smuggled out in a pork barrel Tossup: Yearly ceremony?

  29. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp? Legnano in 1176 Tossup: How did Genoa & Pisa get started in business? Defeated pirates & sacked their city in N. Africa=> Invested the plunder in trade. 3. What were magnates? The “Great Ones” in Ital. Soc., a combination of old nobles & rich MC 4. What were quarters? Areas of a city where another city’s merchants could live under their own laws 5. Venice's early history? Marshy refuge vs. invaders=> came under Byz. Protection=> Dev. Salt &glass Tossup: Patron saint & how they got his remains? St. Mark; smuggled out in a pork barrel Tossup: Yearly ceremony? Tossed gold ring into Adriatic to symbolize Ven’s marriage to sea

  30. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp? Legnano in 1176 Tossup: How did Genoa & Pisa get started in business? Defeated pirates & sacked their city in N. Africa=> Invested the plunder in trade. 3. What were magnates? The “Great Ones” in Ital. Soc., a combination of old nobles & rich MC 4. What were quarters? Areas of a city where another city’s merchants could live under their own laws 5. Venice's early history? Marshy refuge vs. invaders=> came under Byz. Protection=> Dev. Salt &glass Tossup: Patron saint & how they got his remains? St. Mark; smuggled out in a pork barrel Tossup: Yearly ceremony? Tossed gold ring into Adriatic to symbolize Ven’s marriage to sea 6. Three categories of agr. Improvements?

  31. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp? Legnano in 1176 Tossup: How did Genoa & Pisa get started in business? Defeated pirates & sacked their city in N. Africa=> Invested the plunder in trade. 3. What were magnates? The “Great Ones” in Ital. Soc., a combination of old nobles & rich MC 4. What were quarters? Areas of a city where another city’s merchants could live under their own laws 5. Venice's early history? Marshy refuge vs. invaders=> came under Byz. Protection=> Dev. Salt &glass Tossup: Patron saint & how they got his remains? St. Mark; smuggled out in a pork barrel Tossup: Yearly ceremony? Tossed gold ring into Adriatic to symbolize Ven’s marriage to sea 6. Three categories of agr. Improvements? 1) three field system; 2) heavy plow; 3) horse collar & shoe

  32. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp? Legnano in 1176 Tossup: How did Genoa & Pisa get started in business? Defeated pirates & sacked their city in N. Africa=> Invested the plunder in trade. 3. What were magnates? The “Great Ones” in Ital. Soc., a combination of old nobles & rich MC 4. What were quarters? Areas of a city where another city’s merchants could live under their own laws 5. Venice's early history? Marshy refuge vs. invaders=> came under Byz. Protection=> Dev. Salt &glass Tossup: Patron saint & how they got his remains? St. Mark; smuggled out in a pork barrel Tossup: Yearly ceremony? Tossed gold ring into Adriatic to symbolize Ven’s marriage to sea 6. Three categories of agr. Improvements? 1) three field system; 2) heavy plow; 3) horse collar & shoe 7. Role of horseshoe, horse collar, & cross breeding?

  33. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp? Legnano in 1176 Tossup: How did Genoa & Pisa get started in business? Defeated pirates & sacked their city in N. Africa=> Invested the plunder in trade. 3. What were magnates? The “Great Ones” in Ital. Soc., a combination of old nobles & rich MC 4. What were quarters? Areas of a city where another city’s merchants could live under their own laws 5. Venice's early history? Marshy refuge vs. invaders=> came under Byz. Protection=> Dev. Salt &glass Tossup: Patron saint & how they got his remains? St. Mark; smuggled out in a pork barrel Tossup: Yearly ceremony? Tossed gold ring into Adriatic to symbolize Ven’s marriage to sea 6. Three categories of agr. Improvements? 1) three field system; 2) heavy plow; 3) horse collar & shoe 7. Role of horseshoe, horse collar, & cross breeding? Horse could pull heavy plow w/o straining its neck or its hooves cracking

  34. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp? Legnano in 1176 Tossup: How did Genoa & Pisa get started in business? Defeated pirates & sacked their city in N. Africa=> Invested the plunder in trade. 3. What were magnates? The “Great Ones” in Ital. Soc., a combination of old nobles & rich MC 4. What were quarters? Areas of a city where another city’s merchants could live under their own laws 5. Venice's early history? Marshy refuge vs. invaders=> came under Byz. Protection=> Dev. Salt &glass Tossup: Patron saint & how they got his remains? St. Mark; smuggled out in a pork barrel Tossup: Yearly ceremony? Tossed gold ring into Adriatic to symbolize Ven’s marriage to sea 6. Three categories of agr. Improvements? 1) three field system; 2) heavy plow; 3) horse collar & shoe 7. Role of horseshoe, horse collar, & cross breeding? Horse could pull heavy plow w/o straining its neck or its hooves cracking 8. Two advantages of horse over ox?

  35. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp? Legnano in 1176 Tossup: How did Genoa & Pisa get started in business? Defeated pirates & sacked their city in N. Africa=> Invested the plunder in trade. 3. What were magnates? The “Great Ones” in Ital. Soc., a combination of old nobles & rich MC 4. What were quarters? Areas of a city where another city’s merchants could live under their own laws 5. Venice's early history? Marshy refuge vs. invaders=> came under Byz. Protection=> Dev. Salt &glass Tossup: Patron saint & how they got his remains? St. Mark; smuggled out in a pork barrel Tossup: Yearly ceremony? Tossed gold ring into Adriatic to symbolize Ven’s marriage to sea 6. Three categories of agr. Improvements? 1) three field system; 2) heavy plow; 3) horse collar & shoe 7. Role of horseshoe, horse collar, & cross breeding? Horse could pull heavy plow w/o straining its neck or its hooves cracking 8. Two advantages of horse over ox? 50% faster & could work 1-2 hrs. longer/day

  36. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp? Legnano in 1176 Tossup: How did Genoa & Pisa get started in business? Defeated pirates & sacked their city in N. Africa=> Invested the plunder in trade. 3. What were magnates? The “Great Ones” in Ital. Soc., a combination of old nobles & rich MC 4. What were quarters? Areas of a city where another city’s merchants could live under their own laws 5. Venice's early history? Marshy refuge vs. invaders=> came under Byz. Protection=> Dev. Salt &glass Tossup: Patron saint & how they got his remains? St. Mark; smuggled out in a pork barrel Tossup: Yearly ceremony? Tossed gold ring into Adriatic to symbolize Ven’s marriage to sea 6. Three categories of agr. Improvements? 1) three field system; 2) heavy plow; 3) horse collar & shoe 7. Role of horseshoe, horse collar, & cross breeding? Horse could pull heavy plow w/o straining its neck or its hooves cracking 8. Two advantages of horse over ox? 50% faster & could work 1-2 hrs. longer/day 9. Impact of horse on supplying towns?

  37. High Middle Ages Review Bowl 1. First area of W. Eur.-> Towns & factors favoring it? Italy; Deeper rooted cities, trade position, Byz. protection 2. Process of Italian towns gaining indep? Fr. Nobles fight in countryside=> Ask bishops in cities for help => Bishops help in return for more rights & indep.=> Towns more indep. Tossup: Who came to towns' rescue? Otto I of Germany Tossup: What % of his army came from church lands 74% Tossup: His reward? Pope crowned him HR Emperor in 962 Tossup: Battle where towns won indep. From Ger. Emp? Legnano in 1176 Tossup: How did Genoa & Pisa get started in business? Defeated pirates & sacked their city in N. Africa=> Invested the plunder in trade. 3. What were magnates? The “Great Ones” in Ital. Soc., a combination of old nobles & rich MC 4. What were quarters? Areas of a city where another city’s merchants could live under their own laws 5. Venice's early history? Marshy refuge vs. invaders=> came under Byz. Protection=> Dev. Salt &glass Tossup: Patron saint & how they got his remains? St. Mark; smuggled out in a pork barrel Tossup: Yearly ceremony? Tossed gold ring into Adriatic to symbolize Ven’s marriage to sea 6. Three categories of agr. Improvements? 1) three field system; 2) heavy plow; 3) horse collar & shoe 7. Role of horseshoe, horse collar, & cross breeding? Horse could pull heavy plow w/o straining its neck or its hooves cracking 8. Two advantages of horse over ox? 50% faster & could work 1-2 hrs. longer/day 9. Impact of horse on supplying towns? 50% greater radius=> More than 2X area able to supply towns

  38. VIDEO QUIZBOWL!

  39. What is this a picture of and what does it tell us about the early middle ages?

  40. What is this a picture of and what does it tell us about the early middle ages? The French city, Arles, especially symbolized the decline of towns after the fall of the Roman Empire. The few remaining inhabitants fit their entire community inside the old Roman amphitheater for protection from barbarian and Arab raids. When it was cleared out for restoration in 1830, there were two chapels and more than 200 houses inside.

  41. What do these flags represent?

  42. What do these flags represent? The different contrada or wards of Siena

  43. What city is this?

  44. What city is this? San Gimignano

  45. What city is this? San Gimignano What’s the function of all those towers inside the city?

  46. What city is this? San Gimignano What’s the function of all those towers inside the city? Each tower would belong to a noble family and served as a status symbol as well a fortified center of defense against other nobles they may be feuding with.

  47. What city is this? San Gimignano What’s the function of all those towers inside the city? Each tower would belong to a noble family and served as a status symbol as well a fortified center of defense against other nobles they may be feuding with. How many towers did there used to be inside this city?

  48. What city is this? San Gimignano What’s the function of all those towers inside the city? Each tower would belong to a noble family and served as a status symbol as well a fortified center of defense against other nobles they may be feuding with. How many towers did there used to be inside this city? 70

  49. What was this type of bell called and what was its function?

  50. What was this type of bell called and what was its function? Martinella. It was a common rallying point for townsmen on the battlefield).