5-2 The Rise of Greek City-States. Geography Located on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula Mountains isolated Greek city states. Each was located in the valleys. The city-states frequently fought with each other.
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Located on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula
Mountains isolated Greek city states. Each was located in the valleys. The city-states frequently fought with each other.
The coastline was rocky with 100s of bays and natural harbors. Also 1000s of islands in the Aegean make up the rest of Greek controlled lands.
The sea was their vital link to the outside world.
Economy – exports: olive oil, wine, marble imports: metals, grains, ideas (alphabet)
The Greeks colonized rim of the Mediterranean from Spain to Egypt
Warfare increased the power of the middle class
650 BC iron replaced bronze for making weapons & gear for soldiers
The Phalanx was the new fighting method. Rich & poor shared training which provided unity and reduced class differences.
These changes created development of the 2 most powerful city-states: Sparta & Athens
Had the world’s 1st democracy with a Council of 500 that met everyday, and the Assembly that met 40 days of the year. All Athenian citizens ( adult men over 30) could participate in the Assembly. The Council was chosen by lottery each year.
Solon – Father of democracy
Evolution of government
Democracy (Athens only)
Polis = Greek city-state
Acropolis = religious center
Language –everyone spoke & wrote Greek Heros– Trojan War
Festivals – non work days Olympics–competitions between all city states
Religion – they were polytheistic, consulted oracles or fortune tellers, believed their gods weresuper humans & even had flaws. Some thinkers believed the universe was regulated by natural laws.
Their View of Non-Greeks – “Barbars” stammers, Greek superiority gave them a uniqueness as they looked down on all non-Greeks.