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5-2 The Rise of Greek City-States. Geography Located on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula Mountains isolated Greek city states. Each was located in the valleys. The city-states frequently fought with each other.

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5-2 The Rise of Greek City-States

Geography

Located on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula

Mountains isolated Greek city states. Each was located in the valleys. The city-states frequently fought with each other.

The coastline was rocky with 100s of bays and natural harbors. Also 1000s of islands in the Aegean make up the rest of Greek controlled lands.

The sea was their vital link to the outside world.

Economy – exports: olive oil, wine, marble imports: metals, grains, ideas (alphabet)

The Greeks colonized rim of the Mediterranean from Spain to Egypt

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Changes in Warfare

Warfare increased the power of the middle class

650 BC iron replaced bronze for making weapons & gear for soldiers

The Phalanx was the new fighting method. Rich & poor shared training which provided unity and reduced class differences.

These changes created development of the 2 most powerful city-states: Sparta & Athens

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Sparta

  • Political Structure was an Oligarchy with 2 kings which had power during war. One king was left in Sparta to look after affairs, the other led the army in battle.
  • Helots were the serfs of Sparta – provided all economic activities and food for Spartan citizens
  • Lycurgus – the lawgiver, established military- oriented reform of Spartan society
  • Leonidas – great warrior king, Battle of Thermopylae
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Athens

Had the world’s 1st democracy with a Council of 500 that met everyday, and the Assembly that met 40 days of the year. All Athenian citizens ( adult men over 30) could participate in the Assembly. The Council was chosen by lottery each year.

Solon – Father of democracy

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Governing the City-States

Evolution of government

Monarchy

Aristocracy

Oligarchy

Tyranny

Democracy (Athens only)

Polis = Greek city-state

Acropolis = religious center

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Forces of Unity

Language –everyone spoke & wrote Greek Heros– Trojan War

Festivals – non work days Olympics–competitions between all city states

Religion – they were polytheistic, consulted oracles or fortune tellers, believed their gods weresuper humans & even had flaws. Some thinkers believed the universe was regulated by natural laws.

Their View of Non-Greeks – “Barbars” stammers, Greek superiority gave them a uniqueness as they looked down on all non-Greeks.