Organizational Theory . Organization. Greek Organon : meaning a tool or instrument. So, organizations are tools or instruments to meet goals, objectives, to carry out tasks. Theories as Frames:. Frames or Windows filter order the world Structural Frame Human Resource Frame
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meaning a tool or instrument.
Image: A machine
Phrase: The One Best Way
“Bureaucracy is the single best form of organization for providing consistency, predictability, stability, efficient performance, rationalism and professionalism.”
Rules promote fairness and accountability in the conduct of public business.
Rules are also the enemy of progress and dispatch.
Words: Caring, Nurturing, Supportive
Concepts: motivation, empowerment, development, communication
To get them to cooperate you must induce them to join the organization and then induce them to contribute.
Material: money, compensation, bonuses
Personal: prestige, distinction, power
Opportunity: participation, efficacy
Security: job security, support
“We cannot put the individual on one side and society on the other, we must understand the complete interrelation of the two. Each has no value, no existence without the other… There is no such thing as a self-made man.”
Image: smoke-filled room battle
Words: wheeling and dealing
My way or no way.
“It is a world where men speak of moral principles but act on power principles; a world where we are always moral and our enemies always immoral.”
Morgan: "Power is the medium through which conflicts of interest are ultimately resolved."
Dahl: "Power involves an ability to get another person to do something that he or she would not otherwise have done."
power is scarce and limited
negative beliefs about people
power increases when shared
orders are determined by the situation
positive beliefs about peopleHuman Side of Power
Control of Resources
Control of Process
PersonalSources of Power
Who has power in your organization?
What are your sources of power?
“A pattern of basic assumptions, invented, discovered, or developed by a given groups as the correct way to perceived, think and feel”
Words: norms, values
“The way it is done here”
“We don’t do that”
Image: village, anthropologist
“Attempts to change organizations without understanding its culture—norms, beliefs, and values—are bound to fail.
Organizations can be seen as open systems, like organisms which constantly adapt to their internal and external environment
Words: flexible, fluid, changing
What endures is process:
Life is an open system: “Open systems that engage with their environment and continue to grow and evolve.”