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Contents:. Biological control SNAP - Habitat manipulation Lacewing, aphid and parasitoid Tradescantia Leaf miner Possum. What is biological control?. Natural enemies. Pest. Crop. Natural enemies. Pest. Crop. Conservation biological control. Habitat manipulation:. Floral resources.

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    1. Contents: • Biological control • SNAP - Habitat manipulation • Lacewing, aphid and parasitoid • Tradescantia • Leaf miner • Possum

    2. What is biological control? Natural enemies Pest Crop

    3. Natural enemies Pest Crop

    4. Conservation biological control Habitat manipulation: Floral resources Shelter Nectar Alternative prey Pollen Live longer

    5. Predators like the lacewing have been responsible for decreases in economic damage to crops by reducing herbivorous pest species. Brown lacewing Micromus sp.

    6. The brown lacewing is both a predator of many small insects and it also feeds on nectar and pollen, making it omnivorous. Pea aphid Acyrthosiphonpisum)

    7. The floral resource buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum, which has a sucrose-rich nectar.

    8. Other ways for aphids to die..... Parasitoid wasp laying eggs in aphid

    9. The parasitoid larva eats the mummified aphid from the inside out!

    10. The adult parasitoid then emerges from the aphid corpse!

    11. Biological Control of Tradescantia

    12. Tradescantia fluminensis • Introduced to New Zealand 1910 from South America • Established in many native forests in the North Island • Forms a dense matt on the forest floor • Suppresses growth and regeneration of native plants • Can regenerate from a single 1cm node • Also known as wandering jew

    13. TradescantiaLeaf Beetle • Neolemaogloblini-introduced November 2010 • Released at 5 sites between Auckland & Northland

    14. Imported Beetles Not Yet Released Neolema abbreviata Lema basicostata

    15. Beetle Biological Control Agents Neolema abbreviata Larvae feed on growing tips of plant Neolema ogloblini Adult and larvae feed on leaves Lema basicostata Adult and larvae feed on stems

    16. Tip Stem Leaves

    17. Current Lincoln University Research Determine effectiveness of three beetles to control Tradescantiafluminensis: Decide if three beetles are most effective, or possibly just one beetle could be effective enough to reduce Tradescantia growth and spread

    18. The holm oak hedge, Quercus ilex Leaves 30 cms into the hedge show evidence of leaf mines. Fresh new outer growth not yet showing signs of mines

    19. The Holm Oak, Quercus ilex Acorn and leaves from the evergreen oak hedge

    20. Leaf mines The holm oak twig with 5 leaves showing presence of mines. One leaf not infected

    21. Leaf miner,Phyllonoryctermessaniella The adult moth on the leaf surface

    22. Leaf miner The larva or caterpillar of the leaf miner and a tidy pile of frass

    23. Leaf miner attacked by the parasitoidfromTe Taiao. No 4. Nov 2004, ISSN 1176-2454 Tangled Web: A new addition to the natural enemy suite controlling leaf-miner.

    24. Possum biocontrol – funding for this research at Landcare Research has been cut.

    25. The possums own biological systems used to interfere with the process by which sperm fertilises the egg. This response will be triggered by proteins that make up part of the coat of the sperm or egg, and will stop female possums producing eggs and/or interfere with the fertilisation of any eggs produced.

    26. That way, no or very few baby possums will be born, so possum numbers will decline as the adults die off and there are no young to replace them. The biological control agent based on the sperm or egg proteins will be made into baits and fed to possums from bait stations.

    27. LEARNZ 2011 examples include invasive species and their control. Marine reserves High Country wetland ecology Northern wetlands Freshwater ecology Birds of prey

    28. ADDITIONAL INFO: • Colour pictures: Aphid, lacewing, parasitoid wasp • Worksheet for everyone: Ecology – pea aphid, lacewing and parasitoid wasp • Web site: Has worksheets on: biological control of gorse, gorse spider mite, gorse pod moth, investigating aphids, leaf miner

    29. PS.......Have a look at work done by: Professor Steve Wratten, Lincoln University on the "Greening Waipara" programme, which is using native vegetation in vineyards to enhance ecosystem services:

    30. Acknowledgements • Tradescantia information and resources – current M.Sc student, Sam Reed • Video clips, slides and resources on insect bio-control courtesy of Professor Steve Wratten, Eric Wyss and Dr Sophia Orre • All the contents of this presentation draw from work carried out by researchers at Lincoln University