the cardiovascular system
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THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM. Anatomy Acute Exercise Chronic Exercise. Adaptations to Chronic Exercise. Increase VO2max. What does a higher VO2max indicate? What is responsible for an increase in VO2max? VO2max = Qmax x a-vO2 difference. CARDIAC OUTPUT AND TRAINING. Cardiac Output.

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the cardiovascular system



Acute Exercise

Chronic Exercise

adaptations to chronic exercise
Adaptations to Chronic Exercise
  • Increase VO2max.
  • What does a higher VO2max indicate?
  • What is responsible for an increase in VO2max?
  • VO2max = Qmax x a-vO2 difference
cardiac output
Cardiac Output
  • What is responsible for a higher maximal cardiac output?
  • Q = HRmax x SVmax
  • Does HRmax increase with training?
  • Does SVmax increase with training?
stroke volume
Stroke Volume
  • What is responsible for a higher SVmax?

Filling Volume Residual Volume Percent of Total Volume Ejected

stroke volume9
Stroke Volume
  • A larger and stronger heart produces an increase in stroke volume at rest, submaximal exercise and maximal exercise
  • A higher stroke volume at rest and submaximal exercise will allow for a lower heart rate without changing cardiac output
stroke volume10
Stroke Volume
  • A higher maximal stroke volume will produce a higher cardiac output
  • A higher cardiac output will produce a higher VO2max
  • A higher VO2max indicates a greater ability for aerobic energy production
stroke volume11
Stroke Volume
  • What type of aerobic training is most effective in strengthening the heart and thus increasing stroke volume?
heart rate
Heart Rate
  • What affect will a larger SV have on resting HR?
  • What affect will a larger SV have on submaximal exercise HR?
  • What affect will a larger SV have on maximal exercise HR?
Heart Rate Recovery Period

w The time after exercise that it takes your heart to return to its resting rate

w With training, heart rate returns to resting level more quickly after exercise

w Has been used as an index of cardiorespiratory fitness

w Conditions such as altitude or heat can affect it

w Should not be used to compare individuals to one another

blood flow
Blood Flow
  • What other changes occur with training that allow for an increase in blood flow to the muscle?
  • Capillaries?
  • Blood?
Blood Volume?


  • Red Blood Cells?
  • Hematrocrit?
  • Viscosity?
  • Blood flow distribution?
wChanges in plasma volume are highly correlated with changes in SV and VO2max.


Blood Volume and Training

wEndurance training, especially intense training, increases blood volume.

wBlood volume increases due to an increase in plasma volume (increases in ADH, aldosterone, and plasma proteins cause more fluid to be retained in the blood).

wRed blood cell volume increases, but increase in plasma volume is higher; thus, hematocrit decreases.

wBlood viscosity decreases, thus improving circulation and enhancing oxygen delivery.

a v o2 difference
a-v O2 difference
  • What else needs to happen beside an increase in blood flow and blood volume in order for VO2max to increase?
  • Capillaries
  • Myoglobin
  • Mitochondria
Cardiovascular Adaptations to Training

Cardiac Output

w Left ventricle size and wall thickness increase

w Stroke volume increases, as does Qmax and VO2max

w Resting and submaximal heart rates decrease

w Maximal heart rate stays the same or decreases

w Blood volume increases

w Increase in a-v O2 difference

w More capillaries, myoglobin and mitochondria

a-v O2 difference

Blood Pressure and Training

w Blood pressure changes little during submaximal or maximal exercise.

w Resting blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) is lowered with endurance training in individuals with borderline or moderate hypertension.

w Blood pressure during lifting heavy weights can cause increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but resting blood pressure after weight lifting tends to not change or decrease.

lactate threshold
Lactate Threshold
  • What affect would an increase oxygen supply to the muscles during exercise have on the lactate threshold?
  • What affect would this have on aerobic performance?
at rest
At Rest
  • At rest the heart can supply all the needed oxygen with a cardiac output of 5 liters per minute.
  • If the resting stroke volume is higher due to aerobic training, how will the resting heart rate be different?
  • What about parasympathetic stimulation?
submaximal exercise
Submaximal Exercise
  • Before training, running at 6 mph required a cardiac output of 15 liters.
  • Also, before training this required a heart rate of 140 bpm
  • Since after weeks of training stroke volume increases, what will happen to the heart rate while running at 6 mph? Why?
  • What would happen to the running speed if the trained person now ran at a heart rate of 140 bpm?
  • If the lactate threshold used to occur at 6 mph, at what speed will it occur now? Why?
maximal exercise
Maximal Exercise
  • Increase in VO2max
  • Increase SV and blood volume
  • Indicator of aerobic fitness level


Aerobic Endurance and Performance

w Major defense against fatigue which limits optimal performance.

w Should be the primary emphasis of training for health and fitness.

w All athletes can benefit from maximizing their endurance.

w Pulmonary ventilation increases during maximal effort after training.


Respiratory Adaptations to Training

w Static lung volumes remain unchanged; tidal volume, unchanged at rest and during submaximal exercise, increases with maximal exertion.

w Respiratory rate stays steady at rest, decreases with submaximal exercise, and can increase dramatically with maximal exercise after training.


w The a-vO2 diff increases with training due to more oxygen being extracted by tissues.

Respiratory Adaptations to Training

w Pulmonary diffusion increases at maximal work rates.

w The respiratory system is seldom a limiter of endurance performance.

w All the major adaptations of the respiratory system to training are most apparent during maximal exercise.