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Relevance of Transport Measures to Abate Air Pollution in Cairo. Alan Gertler Division of Atmospheric Sciences Desert Research Institute Reno, NV. Presentation Outline. Background Where I left you on Tuesday CAIP objectives Source Attribution Results Control Measures – What can be done?

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Relevance of transport measures to abate air pollution in cairo l.jpg

Relevance of Transport Measures to Abate Air Pollution in Cairo

Alan Gertler

Division of Atmospheric Sciences

Desert Research Institute

Reno, NV


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Presentation Outline Cairo

  • Background

    • Where I left you on Tuesday

    • CAIP objectives

  • Source Attribution Results

  • Control Measures – What can be done?

  • Emissions inventory – need to verify!

  • Summary


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Tuesday’s Take Home Message Cairo

  • All of Greater Cairo suffers from high levels of air pollution.

  • PM10 is dominated by soil dust material, open burning, and mobile source emissions.

  • PM2.5 is dominated by mobile source emissions, open burning, and secondary species.

  • Smelters are the dominant source of airborne lead.

  • Sources other than transportation activities need to be addressed.


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CAIP Objectives Cairo

  • Improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions from cars.

    • Instituted an I/M program.

  • Reduce particulate emissions from buses.

    • Imported CNG buses.

  • Reduce airborne lead and PM emissions from smelters.

    • Shutdown and moved smelters.

  • Institute an air quality monitoring and analysis program.

    • 36 sites but only PM and Pb.

  • Initiate a public awareness and communications program.

    • Website and other activities

  • Identify and implement additional initiatives to support air pollution reductions in Cairo.

    • Source attribution study, episode forecasting, training.


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PM Cairo10 Source Apportionment – Winter/Fall 1999


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PM Cairo2.5 Source Apportionment – Winter/Fall 1999


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2002 PM Cairo10 Source Attribution Results


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2002 PM Cairo2.5 Source Attribution Results


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What Measures Could Be Quickly Implemented? Cairo

  • Garbage collection – would reduce open burning.

  • Industrial controls

    • Implement new industrial technologies.

    • Switch from burning mazout (heavy oil).

  • Reduce secondary PM precursors such as NOx, SO2, NH3, Cl.


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The Transportation Contribution is Still Important! Cairo

  • Direct tailpipe emissions are < 25% of the PM10 (~ 60 u/m3) and < 50% of the PM2.5 in the most extreme cases (El Qualaly).

  • Road dust and the NOx and SO2 contribution to secondary species contributions cannot be neglected.

  • When these are considered, the mobile source contribution is >50% for PM10 and PM2.5.


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What Transportation Measures Should be Implemented? Cairo

  • Implementing transportation control measures is critical to obtain healthy air quality levels – START NOW.

  • Cairo can learn from the experiences of other Megacities:

    • Verify effectiveness of I/M program and, if necessary, modify.

    • Expand and maintain the fleet of CNG buses.

    • Regulate emissions from diesel vans commonly used for passenger transportation.

    • Encourage newer technology light- and heavy-duty vehicles.

    • Better quality fuel.

    • Develop market mechanisms to reduce congestion.

    • Expand the road system (especially across the Nile).

    • Address problem of resuspended road dust (road paving, etc.)


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Other Suggestions Cairo

  • Address lack of enforcement of current regulations.

  • Convince the government there is a problem. (There is a frequent turnover of upper level administrators.)

  • Measure gas phase pollutants.


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Additional Issue – Mobile Source Inventory Cairo

  • Verify the emissions inventory.

  • US experience: mobile source emission factor models often underestimate emissions.

  • Tunnel studies have shown that CO and HC can be underestimated by a factor of 2 to 4, while correctly predicting NOx.

  • Recent changes in the models can lead to an overestimate of emissions.

  • If the model predicts the observations, it is probably for the wrong reasons.


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Summary Cairo

  • The Cairo case differs significantly from the Mexico City situation – It’s much worse.

  • There is a need to address garbage burning and industrial emissions.

  • Transportation measures are important for future attainment.

  • There are few measurements of gaseous species (for example, no O3 measurements).

  • Verify effectiveness and implementation of control strategies.

  • Evaluate the emissions inventory – especially the mobile source component.


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Sponsor: Cairo

USAID

Chemonics, Intl.

Egyptian Env. Affairs Agency

CAIP Personnel

David Fratt

Jim Howes

Mohammed Hassan

Mounir Labib

Many others

DRI Personnel

Mahmoud Abu-Allaban

Bill Dippel

Mike Keith

Doug Lowenthal

John Sagebiel

Ricky Tropp

EAF (Judy Chow) and OAL (Barbara Zielinska)

Acknowledgements