Sampling microorganisms in water. Gwy-Am Shin Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences. The challenges. Different microbe types Different water types Low numbers of pathogens in natural waters. Different waterborne pathogens. Viruses Bacteria Protozoa Helminths.
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Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences
Pathogen Reductions Vary from: low (<90%) to Very High (>99.99+%)
not so efficient with seawater or water with pH >8
Need pH adjustment and addition of cationsFilters for sampling viruses (II)
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Electronegative viruses adsorb to electropositive filter surface
Isopycnic density gradient: microbe density = medium density at one depth
Flotation: microbe density < medium density
E. coli (blue), total coliforms (red-orange) & Salmonella (colorless) colonies