Motivation drives hunger and the hierarchy of needs
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Motivation: Drives, Hunger, and the Hierarchy of Needs. Please close your eyes and think about the future . What do you want to happen?. Motivation Guides Behavior. Motivation: is a stimulus that directs behavior.

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Please close your eyes and think about the future. What do you want to happen?

Motivation guides behavior
Motivation Guides Behavior

  • Motivation: is a stimulus that directs behavior.

  • Behavior is guided by both physiological and psychological needs/desires.

  • What types of things motivate us?

Major theories of motivation

major theories of MOTIVATION

Instinct / Evolutionary Perspective

Drive Reduction


Arousal Theory

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Instinct motivational theory 1
Instinct(Motivational Theory # 1)

  • Refers to inherited patterns of behavior that are unlearned (genetically transmitted)

  • Ex: Imprinting


the process by which animals form attachments during a limited critical period early in life

  • Owen the baby hippo & Mzee, the 130-year-old tortoise


Tink the dachsand & her piglet “puppy”, Pink.

Instinct motivational theory 11
Instinct(Motivational Theory #1)

+ Provides survival value

– Doesn’t meet the complexity of most human behavior

Instinct to Survive

Internal motivation
Internal Motivation

  • How do you know when you need a glass of water?

    Need: a situation where you require something we lack.

This feeling of thirstiness creates a drive
This Feeling of Thirstiness Creates a Drive

  • Drive: caused by some need.

    • Ex: Thirst or hunger

  • Drives motivate us to do behave in a certain way.

  • The goal of our body according to some psychologists, is to ELIMINATE all drives so that we can experience homeostasis: a balanced or constant internal state that the body regulates.

Drive reduction theory motivational theory 2
Drive Reduction Theory (Motivational Theory # 2)

  • Drive Reduction Theory: idea that physiological (biological) needs create drives which motivates an organism to satisfy the need.

  • Ex: Thirstiness (physiological need) creates tension state (drive) which motivates you to get water.

  • After you drink, the drive is reduced and you are closer to homeostasis.

Drive reduction theory motivational theory 21
Drive Reduction Theory (Motivational Theory 2)

+ Primary drives satisfied

+ Homeostasis for bio needs

– Does not account for secondary motives

Drive reduction theory motivational theory 22
Drive Reduction Theory (Motivational Theory #2)

Examples of secondary motives:

  • curiosity

  • sensation seeking

  • play

  • achievement

  • affiliation

  • Power

Drive Reduction Theory does not explain why we want these things!

Incentive theory motivational theory 3
Incentive Theory(Motivational Theory #3)

  • Incentives Theory: a positive or negative ENVIRONMENTAL (has to be external) stimulus motivates behavior.

  • Incentives are not “needs”.

  • Ex: money, etc.

Contrasting approaches
Contrasting approaches

Drive reduction theory

  • 5 hours since last meal

  • Hunger

  • internal

Incentive theory

  • Ice cream truck

  • Palatability (good tasting)

  • external

Arousal theory motivational theory 4
Arousal Theory (Motivational Theory #4)

  • Based on 2 basic ideas:

    • Individuals perform tasks at different levels of arousal (wakefulness/stress).

    • Each individual seeks to find its optimal level of arousal to perform tasks and to avoid boredom.

  • People with high levels of optimal arousal may be more susceptible to thrill seeking activities while those with low levels may seek out more relaxing quiet activities.

  • We are motivated to do some things to maintain our arousal.

Babies Explore their surroundings out of curiosity.

Maslow s hierarchy of needs motivation theory 5
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs(Motivation Theory 5)

  • Physical Needs at bottom must be met first.

  • Psychological goals come after…ultimate goal is self actualization.

Quick review why do we eat
Quick Review: Why Do We Eat?

  • Incentive Theorywould argue:

  • Drive Reduction Theorywould argue:

  • Optimal Arousal Theorywould argue:

Quick review what is the purpose of romance
Quick Review: What is the purpose of romance?

  • Incentive Theorywould argue:

  • Drive Reduction Theorywould argue:

  • Optimal Arousal Theorywould argue:

Time s affect on hunger
Time’s Affect on Hunger

  • Memory of our last meal can also affect hunger along with our schedule of when we usually eat.

Ex. Amnesia Patients who cannot remember their last meal will readily eat another meal soon after the previous one.

Learning external environment and hunger
Learning (External Environment) and Hunger

  • If good eating habits are positively reinforced and bad habits punished, children will often eat healthy. Type of conditioning?

  • People can also develop taste aversions due to certain associations.

  • Ex: chemotherapy patients.

  • Modeling: imitation of healthy or poor eating habits can effect a child’s eating.

    • Ex: Parents Eat Junk Food

Culture s influence on eating
Culture’s Influence on Eating

  • Although our preferences for sweet and salty foods are genetic and universal, our culture’s eating norms affect our specific eating habits.

Bizarre Foods

Monkey Stew is a popular dish in some Eastern cultures.

This steak would seem repulsive to eat to most Hindus.

Reinforcements influence on eating
Reinforcements Influence on Eating

  • Example: May finish your vegetables to stop your mom from nagging you or to make your grandma happy.

  • If you eat brussel sprouts, you get dessert

Culture s influence on eating disorders
Culture’s Influence on Eating (disorders)

  • Many argue the impossible standards of beauty put out by popular culture has lead to an increase in eating disorders:

  • Anorexia Nervosa: eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet still feels fat and starves themselves.

  • Bulimia Nervosa: an eating disorder usually characterized by excessive eating followed by vomiting.

Changing beauty standards correlate with eating disorders
Changing Beauty Standards Correlate with Eating Disorders




Women s distorted ideals of body image
Women’s Distorted Ideals of Body Image







body image

What women

believed men


What men



Achievement motivation
Achievement Motivation

  • Achievement Motivation: desire to accomplish things and attaining a high standard. The Most Inspiring Thing Ever Said

  • 2 Types of Achievement Motivation:

  • Intrinsic Motivation: performing task for its own sake.

  • Extrinsic Motivation: performing task because of you will receive rewards or punishments.

Intrinsic vs extrinsic

Mom: “I’ll give you $5 for every A.’’

Controlling reward

Child: “As long as she pays,

I’ll study.’’

Extrinsic motivation

Mom: “Your grades were great!

Let’s celebrate by going out

for dinner.’’

Informative reward

Child: “I love doing well.’’

Intrinsic motivation

Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic

Mr. Holland's Opus

Mr hollan d s opus

Mr. Holland's Opus

Mr. Holland’s Opus

Example of extrinsic motivation:

Example of intrinsic motivation:

Intrinsic or extrinsic
Intrinsic or Extrinsic?

You are facing a deadline in which you must get a paper done.

Intrinsic or extrinsic1
Intrinsic or Extrinsic?

You read a good nonfiction book for the sake of learning new things.

Intrinsic or extrinsic2
Intrinsic or Extrinsic?

You practice your sport because you enjoy playing it.

Intrinsic or extrinsic3
Intrinsic or Extrinsic?

You perform your job well because you think it will get you a bonus at the end of the year.

Intrinsic or extrinsic4
Intrinsic or Extrinsic?

You start working out because you want to pick up more ladies.

Intrinsic or extrinsic5
Intrinsic or Extrinsic?

You write poetry because you like getting your feelings out on paper.

Intrinsic or extrinsic6
Intrinsic or Extrinsic?

You are a coach and you give a player the “most improved” award.

Making things fit
“Making Things Fit”

  • Cognitive Consistency

  • Balance Theory

  • Cognitive-Dissonance Theory

Cognitive consistency
Cognitive Consistency

  • The idea that people seek to think and behave in a way that fits what they believe and how others expect them to think and behave.

    • Ex-someone who is politically a republican would find it difficult to support a liberal candidate

    • Ex-boys and girls trying to behave consistently with what people expect males and females in their society

Balance theory
Balance Theory

  • The view that people need to organize their perceptions, opinions, and beliefs in a manner that is in harmony with those of the people around them

    • When the people we like share our attitudes, there is a state of balance that gives us a feeling all is well

Balance theory continued
Balance Theory continued…

  • Ex- a group of friends all sharing a common interest

  • Ex- a couple starting a new relationship, but are upset at discovering a major area of disagreement

Cognitive dissonance theory
Cognitive-Dissonance Theory

  • Suggests that people make an attitudinal changes to reduce the tension that occurs when their thoughts and attitudes are inconsistent with their actions

    • Ex- couple in a relationship disagreeing about religion. C-D theory suggest that people may seek to reduce the dissonance by trying to pretend that the differences between them are unimportant or even by denying that the differences exist


  • The desire to join with others and be part of something larger than oneself

    • Prompts people to make friends

    • Join groups

    • Participate in group activities

    • Sports team

    • Glee Club

    • Band