Phnom Penh October 15, 2005 AUF PCSI Agence Universitaire pour la Francophonie Programme de Coopération Scientifique International Coopération Mathématique Interuniversitaire Cambodge - France Michel Waldschmidt http://www.math.jussieu.fr/~miw/
Cooperation between • Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI)Responsable du projet: Michel WALDSCHMIDT • Institut de Technologie du Cambodge (ITC)co-responsable scientifique: Roath CHAN • Institut de Mathématiques de l’Académie des Sciences du Vietnam de Hanoïco-responsable scientifique: Khoai HA-HUY • Centre International de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées (CIMPA) de Niceco-responsable scientifique: Michel JAMBU • Université de la Méditerranée Aix-Marseille IIco-responsable scientifique: Pierre ARNOUX • Université de Sfax (Tunisie)co-responsable scientifique: Mohammed MKAOUAR
Other supports • UNESCO (PISF)Programme International de Sciences Fondamentales (2006-) • Abdu Salam Center (ICTP) International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy • IMU International Mathematical Union
Three courses already given: • Michel JAMBU (CIMPA): january/february 2005Geometry • Pierre ARNOUX (Marseille): march/april 2005 Discrete Mathematics • Michel WALDSCHMIDT (Paris VI): september/october 2005 Algebra
Next courses to be given: • Jean BERTOIN (Paris VI): november 14/december 6, 2005Probability • Michel JAMBU (CIMPA): january 2006 Geometry II • Robert EYMARD (Marne la Vallée ): january/february 2006 Numerical Analysis • Marc LAVIELLE (Paris V): march 2006 Statistics
Further projects of courses: • Randal DOUC (Polytechnique, Paris): may 2006 Probability and Statistics • Mohammed MKAOUAR (Sfax): june 2006 Arithmetic and number theory
Later: • Michel WALDSCHMIDT (Paris VI): fall 2006 Algebra • Pierre ARNOUX (Marseille): fall 2006 Discrete Mathematics
CIMPA ICPAM Centre International de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées International Center of Pure and Applied Mathematics http://www.cimpa-icpam.org
CIMPA CIMPA is a non-profit international organization established in Nice (France) in 1978. Its aim is to promote international cooperation to the benefit of developing countries, with respect to higher education and research in mathematics and related subjects, in particular Computer Science. The missions of CIMPA, as listed in the framework agreement between UNESCO and the French Ministry of Research, are as follows:
to hold international workshops relevant to the needs of the developing countries of the region concerned and in partnership with institutions with similar purposes; • to provide access to the existing scientific documentation in whatever form and to increase the use of new information technologies; • to foster regional networking with a view to increase dialogue and interaction with mathematicians in industrialised countries; • to assist in the creation of graduate and post-graduate training courses, as well as basis training, for future researchers or teachers in mathematics and engineers.
A CIMPA school is usually a presentation or an introduction to the recent researches in a field of mathematics (Pure and Applied Mathematics as well as related subjects such as computer sciences and theoretical physics) organized on French PhD programme basis. Schools are intended to higher education and research teaching staff. Beginners as well as confirmed scientists who wish to improve or to become initiated to a new field of research can attend the lectures. Usually a CIMPA school lasts two or three weeks (60 or 90 hours). In accordance with CIMPA mission, schools are mainly intended for mathematicians, higher teaching staff, researchers or engineers working in developing countries. Such schools and sessions aim at diffusing scientific knowledge and facilitating scientific contacts between participants and lecturers.
Organization of CIMPA • Director: Michel Jambu Administrative board • President: Mario Wschebor • Vice President: Michel Waldschmidt • Secretary: Laurent Guillopé • Treasurer: Bernard Rousselet Scientific council • President of the Scientific Council: Jürgen Jost
Budget of CIMPA • 250 000 €/year not including salaries • Including salaries: 600 000 € • UNESCO • French Ministry of Research • Ministry of Foreign Affairs • Region, Nice University
CIMPA : since 1978, 124 schools and 55 Seminars, workshops in the field of Pure and Applied Mathematics and Computer Science In 41 south countries including • 15 in Africa • 5 in South East Asia and India • 10 in Latine America and Caraïbean • 6 in Middle East • 3 in East Europa 6 451 trainees, 700 lecturers (110 from south countries
UNESCO • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
Although CIMPA is mainly supported by the French Ministry of Research, CIMPA conducts its scientific activities with a complete independence and does not represent the French scientific policy. CIMPA is an international institution, with an international scientific committee.
Phnom Penh, October 15, 2005 Tous les détails se trouvent sur le site du CIMPA All information are available on the ICPAM web site (http://www.cimpa-icpam.org) Michel Waldschmidt http://www.math.jussieu.fr/~miw/
The role of mathematics in the real life, in the development and in developing countries
An example where mathematical modelisation is useful International Conference at St Louis du Senegal « Mathematics and applications to the problems of development in Sahel » Supported by CIMPA december 15-20, 2003
Barbarie Tongue RIVER Barrage to stop salted water 6 km TOWN SAINT-LOUIS Cutting the tongue 30 km The river Senegal
Applications of researches in physics • Computers (microprocessors, optic lecteurs) • Telephones (transmission between fixed dialers, optic cables) • Television (emission and reception of waves) • New materials • Study of the sand and its properties.
Applications of researches in mathematics • Credit cards (cryptography) • Internet (data compression) • Medecine (reconstruction of images, scanner, medical images) • Building (simulation of the deformation of bridges and sky-scrappers related to winds and earth quakes)
Mathematics as a tool • Nuclear Physics • Synthesis of chemical molecules • Automatic recognition of forms, data processing, error correcting codes (telecommunications) • Conception of mobile robots (work in hostile surrounding) • Automatic driving systems (landing under any weather condition) • Oil extraction: Computer Commutative Algebra (Gröbner bases, Zanjan, Iran - CIMPA School)
L’explosion des Mathématiques
« Mr Fourier thought that the main aim of mathematics was public utility and explanation of natural phenomenons. A philosopher like him should have known that the unic goal of Science is the honor of human spirit, and therefore a question of number has the same value as a question of the world system. » Carl Gustav Jacobi Joseph Fourier Gustav Jacobi
Henri Poincaré • « Mathematics deserve to be studied for themselves, the theory which can be applied to physics should be developed as well as others.»
« Mathematics have always progressed under a double stimulation, one from inside coming from studying the problems arising from mathematics itself, the other coming from outside arising from other sciences, from engineering, services and from the society in general. » Jean Pierre Bourguignon, director of IHÉS (Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, France)
Mathematics as a cultural component • Mathematics are a universal language, it provides a structure to thinking, enables to treat the problems in a scientific, rational way. • It is a necessary step to access basic culture. • Helps to create an intellectual elite • Historical development of mathematics • « Free» (not finalized) research • Regional centers of excellence
Hidden face of mathematics • If we consider either art or mathematics, we are in the world of ideas and imagination Roger Rotmann, Director of National Center for Contemporary Art Georges Pompidou, 18/03/2004
Usefulness of cooperation • (Re)constitution of an intellectual elite in developing countries • To create a network of academic people of high level who are indispensable for economic development (able to collaborate with industrials) • Avoid brain drain (sandwich theses - cotutelle) • Reciprocal benefit of exchanges • Francophony
To enable countries from south to acquire the necessary expertise for their development • Teaching: preparation to the formation of technicians, engineers, scientifics - education is a preliminary basis for development • Technology • Computer science • Banks, insurances (actuariat),… (jobs in mathematics and in physics)
Reduction of communication costs increases the agglomeration of richness rather that its dispersion. • A consequence of polarisation is a concentration of expertise in the centers to the detriment of periphery. • Poor countries should find means for their prosperity which do not come from rich countries.
To develop networks in southern countries Unión Matemática de America Latina y el Caribe Southeast Asian Mathematical Society African Mathematical Union
French Cooperation MAE (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) Budget of Foreign Affairs in 2000: 9 billions French Francs (1.5 billion Euros) (Ministry of Economy and Finances: 8,3 billions French Francs)
A general institut for cooperation • IRD(Institut de Recherche pour le Développement) French Institute of scientific research for the development in cooperation ex ORSTOM (Office de recherche scientifique et technique outre -mer) • Budget: 180 millions € (1 600 positions, including 1 200 researchers or engeeniers).
A specialized institute • CIRAD(Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement) • Budget: 78 millions € (1 800 people, including 900 staffs).
Other french institutions which take part to the cooperation (Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique) (Institut National de Recherche Agronomique) (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
COPEDComité pour les pays en développement • Committee for developing countries (French Academy of Sciences) • Aim: to promote initiatives which will help french scientific research in connection with developing countries • January 2002: workshop with CIMPA, SMF and SMAI (the two french mathematical societies) on the subject : Mathematics and developing countries.
Learned Societies • SMF(Société Mathématique de France = French Mathematical Society) • SMAI(Société de Mathématiques Appliquées et Industrielles= Applied and Industrial Mathematical Society ) • SFP(Société Française de Physique = French Physical Society)
UNESCO • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
ICTP • International Center for Theoretical Physics (1964) under IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Abdu Salam Centre, Trieste 17 Millions € (85% from italian gouvernment) «Associate members » from south countries
ISP • International Science Program, University Uppsala (Sweeden) Faculty of Science and Technology Born in 1961 3,8 Millions € / an Physic, Chemistry, then Maths.
ISP: International Science Program • Constitution of networks North/South and South/South, Visits in developed countries of scientifics from developing countries Africa: Cameroun, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambie, Zimbabwe Asia: Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thaïland LatinAmerica : Colombia, Equador, Perou
ICMS Edimburg • International Center of Mathematical Sciences (1990) • The main aims of the ICMS are • To create an environment in which mathematical sciences will develop in new directions. • To encourage and exploit those areas of mathematics that are of relevance to other sciences, industry and commerce (trade). • To promote international collaboration within these aims and in particular with mathematicians in the developing world.
EMS CDC European Mathematical Society Committee for developing countries IMU CDE International Mathematical Union Commission on Development and Exchanges