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La Francophonie (The French-Speaking World)

La Francophonie (The French-Speaking World)

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La Francophonie (The French-Speaking World)

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  1. La Francophonie(The French-Speaking World) The symbol below represents la Francophonie. Credits for PowerPoint Presentation: Mary Arczynski Julia Janka Connor Skahill Domenick Chiddo Matthew Kincaid Perry Smith Kelly Choi Emma Krass Molly Easton Robert Rust Begin PowerPoint

  2. French Facts Did you know that: • Over 100 million people speak French as a native language? • Additionally, almost 40 million people speak French fluently as a second language? • Approximately 60 million people speak French as a foreign language, bringing the total number of French speakers to approx. 200 million? • French is the official language of 29 countries? Source: L’Université Laval,

  3. Le Monde Francophone Light blue areas represent francophone countries. Click on a region to explore it! Go back

  4. North America Areas where French is the first language of most inhabitants. Areas where French is an official language, but English is dominant. How did French get here? Areas with a French-speaking minority. Go back

  5. Africa Countries where French is an official language. Other countries where French is spoken. How did French get here? Go back

  6. Oceania and Pacific Islands

  7. Europe l’Andorre la Corse Areas where French is the first language of most inhabitants. France isn’t the only country in Europe where French is spoken—it is also one of the primary languages spoken in the western part of Switzerland (la Suisse), the southern part of Belgium (la Belgique), Luxembourg (le Luxembourg), Monaco, Andorra (l’Andorre), and, finally, the island of Corsica (la Corse), which is actually a part of France. How did French get here? Go back

  8. Asia Areas with small but significant native French speaking populations. Areas with a French-speaking minority. How did French get here? Go back

  9. The Caribbean (Les Antilles) and South America Island where French is an official and/or native language. Country where French is an official and a native language. How did French get here? Go back

  10. Roman Expansion into Gaul Click on “Gallia” on the map for more information. Go back

  11. La Gaule Gaul (or Gallia, as the Romans called it) was the region that encompassed the area currently known as France. Its inhabitants, the Gauls (les Gaulois), spoke a Celtic language. During the second and first centuries BC (from approximately 200 BC to 50 BC), Gaul was conquered by the Romans and became part of the Roman Empire. They Gauls began to speak Latin, the language of the Romans. Over time, the Latin used in France evolved into French, just as the Latin used in Spain evolved into Spanish, the Latin used in Portugal became Portuguese, and so forth. The languages based on Latin are called Romance languages. Go back

  12. How did French get to Asia? In the second half of the 19th century, the French extended their colonial empire into Southeast Asia, gaining control of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. This area became known as French Indochina. France maintained its power over the area until just after World War II; France had been weakened by the war, and the Asian countries under its control seized this opportunity to gain independence. During the period of French control, which lasted about 65 years, the French language was commonly used in government, education, and commerce in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. Since gaining independence in the 1950s, citizens of these countries have spoken French less and less, but it remains the second language of many people there. The French language can also be found somewhere else in Asia: Pondichéry, India. France began exploring this area in 1673, soon adding it to the French Empire. Click here to found out more about this location. Go back

  13. Pondichéry, India Pondichéry gained its independence from France in 1954, but a walk around will show you that the French language is still present on street signs and store fronts. “Librairie Française” “Le foyer du soldat” “Place de la République” Go back

  14. La Belgique Did you that over 4 million Belgians speak French as their first language? That’s almost half of the country’s population; the rest speak Dutch. Brussels, the capital of Belgium and the seat of the European Union, is bilingual Dutch/French, but has more French speakers than Dutch. Belgium is well-known for its art, its comic books (les bandesdessinés), its architecture, its beer, its food (especially les frites—fries), and its chocolat. La Grand-place in Brussels, considered one of the most beautiful squares in Europe. The Belgian Flag Une Bande Dessiné Go back

  15. How did French get to the Caribbean? In the 1600s, French explorers began to claim parts of the West Indies (the islands of the Caribbean) for their home country, setting up plantations to grow exotic foods to ship back to France. Many French colonies were founded in this area, including la Guyane in 1604, Guadeloupe and Martinique in 1635, Sainte-Lucie in 1650, Haiti in 1664, and other islands in the region. Beginning in the 1800s, many of these colonies managed to gain independence from France, but some of the islanders continued and still continue to speak French or Creole languages based on French. Some of the places in this region did not become independent and are still considered a part of France. This is the case for Guyane, Martinique, Guadeloupe, and the islands of Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthélemy (which are considered part of Guadeloupe). In these countries, French is the official language and the Euro is the official currency. Click here to see a map of all the overseas areas that are still a part of France. Go back

  16. French Guiana

  17. La Guyane La Guyane, known as French Guiana in English, was first visited by the French in 1604, and remains a part of France today. Most residents speak French as their first language. In 1964, the city of Kourou (can you find it on the map of French Guiana?) was chosen to be the site of the French space program, and many rockets have been launched from this location. A rocket at Kourou. La Guyane (French Guiana). A monument in Cayenne, the capital of Guyane. A stamp from Guyane. Next Slide →

  18. French Guiana • It is an overseas region of France • Northern Atlantic coast of South America • Borders Brazil and Suriname • Low population density  less than 3 people per square km • Capital = Cayenne • Currency = Euro Next Slide →

  19. French Guiana • Originally inhabited by indigenous Americans and was settled by the French during the 17th century. • More than 70,000 French convicts were deported there between 1852 and 1939. • It was taken by the Portuguese Empire in 1809, but given back to France through the Treaty of Paris in 1814. • And, of course, they speak FRENCH!! Next Slide →

  20. French Guiana - Climate Next Slide →

  21. How did French get to Africa? Like other European countries, France established many colonies in Africa during the 1800s, and French became a primary language of commerce, education and government in many of these countries. Even after France’s African colonies gained independence (most of them in 1960), French continues to be an official language in many of them. French is the official language in: Bénin, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Sénégal, Togo. French is the co-official language in: Buruni, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros Islands, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Madagascar, Rwanda, Seychelles. French is also spoken significantly in: Algeria, Egypt, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Tunisia. As you can see, French has a very strong presence on the African continent. French-speaking Africans have made important contributions to francophone music and literature. Go back

  22. Le Sénégal The Flag of Senegal Senegal The Dakar Train Station (Built during the French colonial period). Senegal has six national languages, but French is the only official one. In fact, the national anthem is in French! Go back

  23. How did French get to Canada? In 1534, French explorer Jacques Cartier set sail across the Atlantic to find a passage to Asia. He did not find a way to Asia, but did find and explore the eastern region of Canada, now known as Québec. Cartier and his crew made two more voyages to Canada to trade with the Huron that lived there, but no French colonies were founded until the early 17th century. The first permanent French settlements were created by the explorers Samuel de Champlain and Pierre Dugua, who established colonies to support fishing and fur trade, first in Acadia in 1604, then Québec in 1608. This territory was named “La Nouvelle France” (New France). Even after Great Britain gained control of Canada in 1763, the people of Québec continued to speak French, and still do so today. There are also French-speakers in other parts of Canada as well, including New Brunswick and Ontario. In fact, almost one-third of all Canadian citizens speak French. In Québec, about 87% of the population speaks French. The only parts of this region still controlled by France are the islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon. Click here to see a map of all the overseas areas that are still are part of France. Go back

  24. Québec Le françaisquébécois

  25. The Explorations of Jacques Cartier Go back

  26. La Louisiane You may have heard about the French-speaking Cajuns of Louisiana. How did they get there? To answer this question, it may help to know that there once was a part of New France (now Canada) called Acadia, and the people from Acadia were called Acadians, or Acadiensin French, which is where the word Cajun comes from. The Cajuns (Acadians) came to Louisiana from Canada in the 1700s. Here’s why: France lost control of Acadia to Great Britain in 1713. When the British went to war with the French in 1754 (the French and Indian War), the British demanded that the French-speaking Acadians take an oath to the King to prove their loyalty. Many Acadians refused, and they were forced by the British to leave. About 10,000 Acadians were deported and had to find new homes in America and elsewhere. Many Acadians ended up in Louisiana, which was controlled by France at that time. They were called “Cajuns” there because that’s how the word Acadienssounded to English-speakers. Today, there are around 400,000 Cajuns in Lousiana. Most older Cajuns are bilingual in English and French, but many younger Cajuns speak only English. Cajuns are known for their spicy food, their celebrations, and their music. Go back

  27. La cuisine Cajun Crawfish Gumbo Crawfish, which are like small lobsters, are very popular in Cajun cuisine. Gumbo is a stew with okra, chicken, and andouille (a spicy sausage). Cornbread Jambalaya Cornbread is a traditional part of a meal in the south, where wheat and flour were once hard to find. Jambalaya is a mixture of rice, vegetables, and seafood. Go back

  28. Mardi gras Ever heard of the Mardi Gras celebration in New Orleans? Mardi gras, French for Fat Tuesday, is the culmination of the Carnaval season, which is a time of celebration and indulgence before the Lenten period of fasting and sacrifice. The streets of New Orleans Mardi Gras masks Go back

  29. Un peu de musique! When the French-speaking Acadians came to Louisiana, they brought much of their culture with them, but as they mingled with their diverse new neighbors in Louisiana, their culture changed to fit their new surroundings. Cajun music is a good example of this; although the song you will hear is sung in French, its style will sound familiar to you as you recognize the influence of country and blues music. Click on the icon below to hear a live performance, recorded in 2005, by the Lost Bayou Ramblers. The song is called “Moi, j’connais pas.” Listen as the performers speak in French before the song begins. The Savoy-Doucet Cajun Band The band in this photo is a typical Cajun band, which normally includes a fiddle, an accordion, and guitars. Go back

  30. Les Dom-Tom Click once on the map to see when each of these locations became a part of France. Dom-Toms (Départements/Territoiresd’outre-mer) are the overseas areas that are a part of France. They are all islands except Guyane. The Dom-Toms have representatives in the French Parliament.

  31. Les Dom-Tom 1536 1635 1635 1604 1843 1638 1853 1768 1772 Dom-Toms are the overseas areas that are a part of France. They are all islands except Guyane. The Dom-Toms have representatives in the French Parliament.

  32. Mayotte (Indian Ocean) Next Slide →

  33. What Is It? • It’s an overseas collectivity of France consisting of a main island, Grande-Terre (or Mahoré), a smaller island, Petite-Terre (or Pamanzi), and several islets around these two. • Mayotte has an estimated 194,000 people and is very densely populated. • Its biggest city and capital is Mamoudzou. • The territory is geographically part of the Comoro Islands, but has been politically separate since a 1974 referendum in which it elected to remain under French rule. Next Slide →

  34. Fun Facts • Mayotte was ceded to France along with the other Comoros in 1843. • The political framework is a parliamentary representative democratic French overseas community, whereby the President of the General Council is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. • Executive power is exercised by the government • Motto: Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité -"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" • There are no railways or waterways • Main religion: Islam • Main language: Shimaore Next Slide →

  35. Mayotte Back to Africa

  36. New Caledonia Back to Oceania

  37. Facts • In the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia • Ethnic groups: Melanesian 42.5%, European 37.1%, Wallisian 8.4%, Polynesian 3.8%, Indonesian 3.6%, Vietnamese 1.6%, other 3% • Tropical Climate • Bougna, a traditional meal among the native Melanesians, which consists of some form of meat, pork, chicken, fruitbat, crab, etc. • Coastal plains with interior mountains • New Caledonia has about 25% of the world's known nickel resources

  38. Facts • In the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia • Ethnic groups: Melanesian 42.5%, European 37.1%, Wallisian 8.4%, Polynesian 3.8%, Indonesian 3.6%, Vietnamese 1.6%, other 3% • Tropical Climate • Bougna, a traditional meal among the native Melanesians, which consists of some form of meat, pork, chicken, fruitbat, crab, etc. • Coastal plains with interior mountains • New Caledonia has about 25% of the world's known nickel resources Next Slide →

  39. Relationship with France • Settled by both Britain and France during the first half of the 19th century, the island became a French possession in 1853. • Served as a penal colony for four decades after 1864. • The islands have been an overseas territory of France since 1956. • A referendum on independence will take place between 2014 and 2019 to determine if New Caledonia will become independent from France. • The national holiday is Bastille Day. Next Slide →

  40. Photos of laNouvelleCalédonie Back to Oceania

  41. Next Slide →

  42. Not to be confused with… • Reunions… …on an island Next Slide →

  43. Reunion Island Located in the Indian Ocean relatively near Madagascar, L’île de la Réunionhas a humid tropical climate. It is an overseas department of the French Republic, so it has the same political status as a metropolitan department within France. Next Slide →

  44. Reunion Island Next Slide →

  45. Reunion Island From the 17th to the 19th centuries, French immigration, supplemented by influxes of Africans, Chinese, Malays, and Malabar Indians, gave the island its ethnic mix. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 cost the island its importance as a stopover on the East Indies trade route. Today it is a gorgeous and common vacation site for hikers and outdoorsy people. Next Slide →

  46. Next Slide →

  47. • Back to Africa

  48. Mali Next Slide →

  49. Mali (Africa) • The largest country in West Africa • Mali became a French colony in the 19th Century • Became independent in 1960 • Primary Religion: Muslim • Official language: French • Common language: Bambara Next Slide →