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Global Agriculture Essential Standard 2.00: Understand global agriculture
Objective 2.01 • Understand the history of global agriculture.
Agrisciencedefined: • The application of scientific principles and new technologies to agriculture • Applied science • applies knowledge of biology, chemistry and physics • Agronomists use biology and chemistry • develop new ways to control weeds • Entomologists use biology and chemistry • develop new ways to control insects • Agricultural engineers use physics • develop new, more efficient machinery • Employs the scientific method • to solve problems
Agriculture defined: • The production, processing, marketing and distribution of all agricultural products, related supplies and services • Examples: • Cattle • Production • farmer • cow-calf • feeder steers • Processing • slaughter facility • Rendering • Beef • Leather • Marketing • Butcher • Grocery • Steaks • Transportation • Plane • Rail • Truck • Related supplies and services • Veterinarian • feed dealer
Agriculture defined: • Examples: • Wheat • Production • Farmer • Grain • Processing • Grain mills • Flour • Marketing • Bakery • Bread • Transportation • grain trucks • Rail • Related supplies and services • fertilizer dealer • crop scouting • machinery dealer • GPS
Agriculture defined: • Examples: • Roses • Production • flower grower • processing/marketing • Harvesters • wholesale • retail florist • Transportation • Plane • Truck • floral delivery driver • Related supplies and services • glass vase sales • greenhouse manufacturers • floral designers
Agribusiness defined: • Agribusiness refers to commercial firms (businesses) that have developed with or stemmed out of agriculture • Examples of Agribusiness: • Farm related • Chemical Company • Tractor Manufacturer • Pharmaceutical Company (veterinary medicines) • Horticulture related • Landscape or nursery business • Seed company • Mower Manufacturer
Renewable natural resources defined: • Resources provided by nature that can replace or renew themselves • Examples • Wildlife – deer, songbirds, birds of prey, fish, rabbits • Forests – trees, grasses
Progress in US Agriculture • Mechanization • Helps 2% of America’s work force meet the food and fiber needs of our nation • Reduction of 90% in production farming in the last 200 years
Cotton Gin • Invented in 1793 • Eli Whitney • Transformed cotton to a usable product • Removed cotton seed from cotton fiber
George Washington Carver • Late 1890’s • Developed crop rotations and the use of legumes • plants that “make” their own nitrogen • Peanuts • Significantly improve soil fertility in the U.S. south
Grain Reaper • Cyrus McCormick • Invented in 1834 • Cut grains • Cut wheat, oats, and other crops
Cutting Grain • With the sickle or reaping hook one man could cut from one-half to one acre in a hard day's work. • The cut grain was later bound by hand
Cast Iron Plow • Invented in the early 1800’s • Thomas Jefferson • Rough surface that dirt stuck to
Steel Moldboard Plow • 1837 • John Deere • Smoother surface • Rich clay soil did not stick to it • Made plowing easier and faster
Henry Blair • Seed planter • 1834 • Cotton planter • 1836
Corn Picker • Invented in 1850 • Edmund Quincy • Helped speed up the harvesting of corn
Barbed Wire • Joseph Glidden • 1874 • dramatically changed raising livestock
Milking Machine • Invented in 1878 • Anna Baldwin • Used vacuum suction • Replaced hand milking
Perishable food preservation • 1879 • Thomas Elkins • designed a device that helped with the task of preserving perishable foods by way of refrigeration
1849 - 1920 Tractor • Invented in 1904 • Benjamin Holt • Replaced the mule as a source of power • Horse power
Gene Gun • 1987 • John Sanford • A device for injecting cells with genetic information
GPS technology • 1993 • tractor based GPS systems together with GIS (Geographic Information Systems) • Used to gather data such as soil condition, humidity, temperature and other variables • Used to control • intensity of planting • application of fertilizer • application of pesticides • watering schedules
Robotic Milking Machines • Late 1990’s • First used in Ontario, Canada • Benefits by a reduction in labor • Initial cost is primary disadvantage especially to small producer
Land Grant Institutions • An institution designated by its state legislature to receive funding (Morrill Acts of 1862 &1890) to teach agriculture, military tactics and the mechanical arts. • Agricultural experiment stations (Hatch Act 1887). Examples: • North Carolina A&T (1890) Greensboro, NC • North Carolina State University (1887) Raleigh, NC • Clemson University (1889) Clemson, SC • University of Georgia (1785) Athens, GA • University of Tennessee (1794) Knoxville, TN • Virginia Tech. University (1872) Blacksburg, VA
Agriculture related Government Agencies • Established to assist farmers, ranchers and the general public • Information • professional assistance • funding
Examples of some of the agencies we now have: • (USDA) United States Department of Agriculture • 1862 • Provides leadership on food, agriculture, natural resources, rural development, nutrition, and related issues based on sound public policy, the best available science, and efficient management. • Examples of branches/agencies of USDA: • NRCS (1935) - Natural Resource Conservation Service • APHIS (1972) – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service • NASS (1863) – National Agricultural Statistics Service • USFS (1905) –United States Forest Service • Mmission is to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the nation’s forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations.
Examples of some of the agencies we now have: • NCCES North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service • 1914 • To put research –based knowledge to work for economic prosperity, environmental stewardship and an improved quality of life • North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (NCDA&CS) • Services that promote and improve agriculture…..
Origins of Major Food Crops 1. Fruits and Vegetables • Peaches - China • Tomato – South America • Peanut – Peru, South America • Sweet potato – Central America
Origins of Major Food Crops 2. Grain, Oil and Fiber Crops • Corn – Cuba, Mexico • Soybeans – Southeast Asia • Cotton – Mexico, Africa, Pakistan • Wheat – Southwest Asia (Syria, Jordan, Turkey, India) • Note: Sources vary on actual country of origin but generally agree on region of the world.
Major US Agricultural Production Regions for Selected Crops and Livestock • Regions develop based on a variety of factors: • Soils • Weather • market development • Feed availability
Examples of agricultural production regions and/ or states that generally rank high in U.S. production. • Citrus fruit • Florida • Texas • California • Corn belt • Includes all or parts of these Midwestern states • Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, South Dakota, Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska,
Examples of agricultural production regions and/ or states that generally rank high in U.S. production. • Wheat • Hard Red Spring Wheat – (highest protein content, excellent bread wheat, superior milling and baking characteristics) • Minnesota, North and South Dakota, Montana, Idaho, (also Oregon, Washington, California) • Soft Red Winter Wheat – (high yielding, low protein, used for cakes, biscuits, pastries) • Southeastern states including North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Georgia and others, as well as Midwestern states including Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri. • Spearmint • Washington, Oregon, Idaho • Floriculture crops • California, Florida, Michigan, Texas, North Carolina
Examples of agricultural production regions and/ or states that generally rank high in U.S. production. • Beef cattle • Texas, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Colorado, Oklahoma, Missouri, South Dakota (corn belt area) • Dairy • Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine, • California, Idaho and Texas are leading producers but are not located in this region
Examples of agricultural production regions and/ or states that generally rank high in U.S. production. • Hogs • North Carolina and Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota • Corn belt area • Poultry (broilers) • Southern and southeastern states • North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, Texas
North Carolina Agriculture • NC is divided into three basic geographic and agricultural regions • Mountains • Piedmont • Coastal plains
North Carolina Agriculture • Mountain counties • Christmas trees • Apples • Trout
North Carolina Agriculture • Piedmont counties • Greenhouse and Nursery crops • Broilers • Turkeys • Dairy cattle
North Carolina Agriculture • Eastern counties • Hogs • Turkeys • Broilers • Tobacco- flue-cured • Sweet potatoes • Vegetables • Peanuts • Cotton • Corn • Soybeans • world’s most important source of vegetable oil