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Introduction to Histology. Four basic tissue types: Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous All animals are composed of ONLY these four tissue types Tissue types are organized to form organs, which form the functional systems of the body. Epithelial tissue.

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introduction to histology
Introduction to Histology
  • Four basic tissue types:
    • Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
  • All animals are composed of ONLY these four tissue types
  • Tissue types are organized to form organs, which form the functional systems of the body
epithelial tissue
Epithelial tissue
  • Function: covers the internal and external surfaces of the body
  • Four types: Squamous, cuboidal, columnar, and transitional
  • Organized in layers: simple or stratified
examples epithelial
Transitional epithelial: found in the bladder

Stretches as the bladder becomes full

Examples: Epithelial

p. 158 F draw above

examples epithelial4
Examples: Epithelial
  • Simple squamous: lines blood vessels and lungs
  • Allows for increased blood flow and increased oxygen diffusion

p. 157 A

examples epithelial5
Examples: Epithelial
  • Stratified squamous: lines the mouth, esophagus, cervix and skin
  • Several layers offers protection to outer layers and membranes of body.

p. 157 B

examples epithelial6
Examples: Epithelial
  • Simple columnar: digestive tracts
  • Cells mixed with goblet cells that secrete mucous to aid in digestion

p. 158 D




Shape (form)





Layer with no specific shape,

Cells can stretch

Allow bladder to stretch as it fills



Lungs, blood vessels

Flat and thin layer

Increase flow and absorption rate through tubes



Skin, esophagus, mouth cervix

Several layers of thin flat cells

Provide protection from abrasions

Simple columnar

Digestive tract

One cell layer of rectangular cells mixed with goblet (mucous –producing) cells

Aid in digestion with mucous production

  • Function: Bind and support other tissues
  • Several types:
    • Bone
    • Blood
    • CT proper: dense and loose
    • Adipose
    • Cartilage
examples connective
Examples: Connective
  • CT proper:
    • Loose: ECM
    • Dense: tendons and ligaments

p. 159 A

examples connective11
Examples: Connective
  • Blood
    • To circulate materials throughout the organism
    • RBC’s: contain hemoglobin to allow for oxygen to be carried to the tissues.

p. 160 C

examples connective12
Examples: Connective
  • Cartilage: vary in # of fibers
    • Hyaline: ribs, trachea
    • Elastic: ears, larynx
    • Fibro: spinal chord

p. 160 D

examples connective13
Examples: Connective
  • Adipose tissue:
    • Insulation
    • Storage

p. 159 A

muscle tissue
Muscle tissue
  • Function: Able to contract for locomotion.
  • Three types: skeletal, cardiac and smooth
muscle tissue15
Muscle tissue
  • Skeletal: voluntary, striated, multinucleate cells
  • Muscles attached to bones for voluntary movement

p. 161 A

muscle tissue16
Muscle tissue
  • Smooth:
    • Non-striated, spindle-shaped, uni-nucleate involuntary cells
  • Muscles found in digestive tract, respiratory tract, etc.

p. 161 B

muscle tissue17
Muscle tissue
  • Cardiac:involuntary, striated, branched, uni-nucleate cells
  • Only found in the heart

p. 161 D

nervous tissue
Nervous tissue
  • Function: Respond to

stimuli and transmit impulses.

  • Cells are called neurons
  • Composed of cell body, axon and dendrites.
  • Single cell may run up to several feet long.

p. 161 IV

mystery slides lab activity
Mystery Slides Lab activity
  • Pick a Partner
  • Go online and view the Mystery Slides in the “Jost Student Histology” Powerpoint on the Biology 102 website.
    • In each case, healthy tissue is on left and diseased/damaged tissue is on right.