Alfred R. Wallace Wallace Line "On the Monkeys of the Amazon“ (1853, based on travels to Amazon in 1848) "On the Law Which has Regulated the Introduction of Species“ (1855, based on trips to Pacific in 1854-1862)
Galapagos finches Darwin The Voyage of the Beagle (1839) (five years from 1831-1836) "Seeing this gradation and diversity of structure in one small, intimately related group of birds, one might really fancy that from an original paucity of birds in this archipelago, one species had been taken and modified for different ends“ (1845)
1.2-0.6 1.6-1.1 1.7-1.2 Ubeidiya, 1.4-1.0 1.6-1.1 Homo ergaster/erectus Dispersal Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia, 1.7-1.6 million years ago Physiology and technology enabled rapid colonization of new areas, budding off (not far) from parent group
Deep skull, 40k Niah Cave, Sarawak
Lake Mungo (40k+) Burial with red ocher Boats from south-east Asia to Australia, 100km at its shortest point back then (can’t see from coast to coast)
Migrations of early Humans intoIsland SE Asia and Melanesia http://www.ck/people.htm
Kuk Swamp, New Guinea • Evidence for transition to agriculture from early hunter-gatherer societies • forest clearing and possible water management (diversion), ca. 7000 BC • Early Holocene domestication of taro and banana, together with some varieties of sugarcane and yams • More organized agricultural works, including mounding for cultivation by ca. 5000 BC and grid-like ditching by 2000 BC, with evidence for more extensive forest clearing related to banana and taro cultivation • Recent development of more complex systems related to introduction of sweet potato (the “Ipomean revolution”); food for pigs? • Foundation for surplus production for exchange rituals in pigs and shells (called “Big-man” systems)
Early “Vegeculture” In the 1950s, geographer Carl Sauer suggested that early agriculture occurred first in tropical forest regions of SE Asia Based on vegeculture, growing not by seeds by plant cuttings, of tropical forest plants, most notably root crops Happened along major rivers first, where early settled villages had emerged based on highly productive exploitation of rich aquatic resources
The Austronesians Peter Bellwood
Taiwan • Earliest Austronesians • Dabenkeng culture (3000-2000 BC) • Nanguanli site, waterlogged site dating to 3000-2500 BC, which yielded cord-marked, red-slipped ceramics, clay spindle whorls, shell knives, carbonized rice and foxtail millet • From 3000-900 BC Austronesians spread from Taiwan through Philippines, eastern Indonesia, Western Pacific (Micronesia and Island Melanesia), and western Polynesia (Tonga and Samoa) • Red-slipped and often cordmarked pottery; outside of Taiwan developed into circle and punctate stamped pottery in the Philippines, Micronesia, and Lapita sites in Melanesia
Beinan • Large village site (40 ha) in Taiwan with 50 dry-stone houses, 1500 burials, dating to 1500-800 BC (post-dates cord-marked pottery) Today, Austronesians (Formosans) make up about 1% of island
Settlement pauses relate to development of watercraft, notaby outrigger canoes (pause 1) by 2000 BC and “double canoe” in Polynesia (pause 2) 500 BC-AD 1 1500 BC AD 700-1250 1350-900 BC
Lapita Colonization in Melanesia, 1350-900 BC (Proto-Oceanic Austronesian) “Tattooed pottery” Pigs, chickens, yams, dog, taro carried on sailing vessels
Lapita settlements, with sand and crushed shell tempered and decorated pottery, are rich in diverse artifacts and cultural features, like ovens, hearths, and postholes, tied to maritime and horticultural economy, which included pigs, fowl, and dogs. Sites average 1 ha (2.5 acres) with some larger sites (7-8 ha; 18-20 acres). In malaria-free regions, beyond Vanuatu, populations grew rapidly.
Groundstone Bone, and Shell Tools Tikis
Polynesian Colonization • Eastern Polynesia colonized ca. AD 700-1250 (according to Bellwood’s chapter) 500 BC – AD 1 AD 700-1250 APS
Forms of Social Organization(Elman Service, 1962) • Pre-State small-scale and kin-based “simple” societies: bands and tribes: small-sized (10s to 100s autonomous social groupings, egalitarian, division of labor and status based on age, sex, and personal characteristics or achievements); • Chiefdoms: medium-sized social formations (1000s to 10,000s), ranked kin-groups based on hereditary status (incipient classes), regionally-organized, integrated (non-autonomous) communities • State (territory and class-based societies); Large societies divided into stratified social classes, with centralized government, a ruling elite class, able to levy taxes (tribute), amass a standing army, and enforce law.
The Rise of Social Inequality and Complexity • “Rank Revolution” • What led to the emergence of social stratification (rise of social classes) and complexity (regional integration and institutional differentiation within communities) • How were personal and social autonomy and egalitarian social structures transformed into societies in which people were subordinate to others based on birth and social position, at both community and regional levels
Chiefdoms • simple “two-tiered” hierarchy: people are either elite or commoner, in part related to hereditary (incipient classes); • generally based on semi-intensive economies; • various communities integrated into regional society, typically showing a “bi-modal” or rank-ordered settlement pattern: one or a few large (first-order) settlements, with smaller (second-and third-order) satellite settlements linked to these; • formal, even full-time specialists: religious specialists, warriors, chiefs, artisans;
Ancient Polynesian Society • The chiefdom was first clearly defined in Polynesia (Sahlins 1958; Service 1962) • Societies based not only on reciprocity, but on redistribution economies: strategic resources were concentrated in the hands of a few (chiefs) who then redistributed these to lower ranking community members • APS has its roots in earlier forms of hierarchical social organization in Lapita societies, and later diversified as it spread throughout Polynesia • In Polynesia, chiefdoms developed complex forms of terrace fields, canal irrigation fields, and other semi-intensive forms of food production (fish ponds, pond fields), marked warfare and conquest, monumental architecture, and, in some cases (Hawaii, Tonga), highly stratified social organization
The Ramage or Conical Clan • Internally ranked, or hierarchical, social organization based on primogeniture • Tendency to “ramify,” that is subordinate lineages split off main group to found new communities
Over time this process results in long-distance migrations (island-hopping) that helps explain colonization of Polynesia by Austronesians
Trade, Interaction, Alliance Shell necklace, a component of the famous Kula trade ring in the Trobriands Trobriand (Melanesia) kula trading vessel The Tui Tonga, the sacred ruler of the 160+ island polity of Tonga (western Polynesia), for instance, engaged in alliance marriages with daughters of ruling lineages from Samoa and Fiji, many hundreds of miles away.
The Navigators Polynesian ocean map
Colonization: Western Polynesia (Lapita), 1350-900 BC, and eastern Polynesia, AD 700 to 1250
Diversification: Population, ecology, and social structure (status rivalry) As colonizing populations adapted to the unique conditions of different islands, APS groups became increasingly diversified and distinctive Marshall Sahlins (1958) proposed that differences in environment and food production strategies were critical to divergent cultural development through Polynesia (big, high islands supported larger groups, with more Intensive economies and small, low islands less)
High islands, which provided the richest environments for human exploitation, are where the largest and most complex of the Polynesian chiefdoms emerged; Atolls were at the opposite extreme
Marae (general term for shrine/temple in Polynesia) Fish Weirs Stone Houses
Langi: coral slabbed earthen burial mound for Tongan nobles Mound for Tui Tonga, sacred ruler of Tongan empire (160 islands), at Tongatapu, the small sacred capital where the Tui Tonga and related nobles lived
Latte, stone pillars (Marianas, Micronesia) Yap, stone “money” The stones were made from imported limestone (most from Palau, 250 miles SW). Very rare and valuable. Expeditions to get stones led by chiefs with select a group of brave and involved great peril, even death.
Nan Madol, Pohnpei(Caroline Islands, Micronesia) Built from large basalt blocks, some weighing as much as fifty tons on an ancient coral reef, with hundreds of artificial structures, intersected by manmade canals.
Moai (giant tikis) Easter Island (Rapa Nui) first settled ca. AD 900 (or earlier) Line of maoi on large platform (ahu)