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Project Management A Managerial Approach. Chapter 1 Projects in Contemporary Organizations. Projects in Contemporary Organizations. Project Management has emerged because the characteristics of our turn-of-the-century society demands the development of new methods of management

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project management a managerial approach

Project ManagementA Managerial Approach

Chapter 1

Projects in Contemporary Organizations

projects in contemporary organizations
Projects in Contemporary Organizations
  • Project Management has emerged because the characteristics of our turn-of-the-century society demands the development of new methods of management
  • Many forces have fostered the emergence and expansion of Project Management
forces of project management
Forces Of Project Management
  • 3 Paramount Forces driving Project Management:
    • 1. The exponential expansion of human knowledge
    • 2. The growing demand for a broad range of complex,

sophisticated, customized goods and services

    • 3. The evolution of worldwide competitive markets for the

production and consumption of goods and services

  • All 3 forces combine to mandate the use of teams to solve problems that used to be solvable by individuals
objectives of a project
Objectives of a Project
  • 3 Project Objectives:
    • Performance
    • Time
    • Cost
  • Expectations of clients are not an additional target, but an inherent part of the project specifications
objectives of a project1
Objectives of a Project
  • 3 Project Objectives:
the professionalism of project management
The Professionalism of Project Management
  • Complexity of problems facing the project manager
  • Growth in number of project oriented organizations
    • The Project Management Institute (PMI) was established in 1969
    • By 1990 it had 7,500 members
    • 5 years later, over 17,000 members
    • And by 1998, it had exploded to over 44,000 members
  • This exponential growth is indicative of the rapid growth in the use of projects
  • Also reflects the importance of PMI as a force in the development of project management as a profession
recent changes in managing organizations
Recent Changes in Managing Organizations
  • The process of managing organizations has been impacted by three revolutionary changes
    • 1. Accelerating replacement of traditional, hierarchical management by participatory management
    • 2. Currently witnessing the adoption of the “systems approach” (sometimes called “systems engineering”)
    • 3. Organizations establishing projects as the preferred way to accomplish the many specific changes that must be made when the organization attempts to alter its strategy
the definition of a project
The Definition of a “Project”
  • Must make a distinction between terms:
    • Program - an exceptionally large, long-range objective that is broken down into a set of projects
    • Task - set of activities comprising a project
    • Work Packages - division of tasks
    • Work Units - division of work packages
  • In the broadest sense, a project is a specific, finite task to be accomplished
characteristics of a project
Characteristics of a Project
  • Have a purpose
  • Have a life cycle
  • Interdependencies
  • Uniqueness
  • Conflict
why project management
Why Project Management?
  • Companies have experienced:
    • Better control
    • Better customer relations
    • Shorter development times
    • Lower costs
    • Higher quality and reliability
    • Higher profit margins
    • Sharper orientation toward results
    • Better interdepartmental coordination
    • Higher worker morale
why project management1
Why Project Management?
  • Companies have also experienced some negatives:
    • Greater organizational complexity
    • Increased likelihood of organizational policy violations
    • Higher costs
    • More management difficulties
    • Low personnel utilization
the project life cycle
The Project Life Cycle
  • Stages of a Conventional Project:
    • Slow beginning
    • Buildup of size
    • Peak
    • Begin a decline
    • Termination
the project life cycle2
The Project Life Cycle
  • Time distribution of project effort is characterized by slow-rapid-slow
the project life cycle3
The Project Life Cycle
  • Other projects also exist which do not follow the conventional project life cycle
  • These projects are comprised of subunits that have little use as a stand alone unit, yet become useful when put together
the project life cycle4
The Project Life Cycle
  • Unlike the more conventional life cycle, continued inputs of effort at the end of the project produce significant gains in returns
the project life cycle5
The Project Life Cycle
  • It is essential for the Project Manager to understand the characteristics of the life cycle curve for his project
  • The distinction between the two life cycles plays a critical role in the development of budgets and schedules for the project
the project life cycle6
The Project Life Cycle
  • Risk during project life cycle
    • With most projects there is some uncertainty about the ability to meet project goals
    • Uncertainty of outcome is greatest at the start of a project
    • Uncertainty decreases as the project moves toward completion
risk during project life cycle
Risk During Project Life Cycle
  • Uncertainty decreases as the project moves toward completion
textbook structure
Textbook Structure
  • Structure of the text follows the life cycle of projects
    • Text divided into 3 main sections:
      • Part I - Project Initiation
      • Part II - Project Implementation
      • Part III - Project Termination
  • The Project Management Institute (PMI) was founded in 1969 to foster the growth and professionalism of project management
  • Project management is now being recognized as a valuable “career path” in many organizations, as well as a way to gain valuable experience within the organization
  • The three primary forces behind project management are:
    • 1. The growing demand for complex, customized goods and services
    • 2. The exponential expansion of human knowledge
    • 3. The global production-consumption environment
  • The three prime objectives of project management are:
    • 1. To meet specified performance
    • 2. To do it within specified costs
    • 3. Complete on schedule
  • Terminology follows in this order: program, project, task, work package, work unit
  • Projects are characterized by a singleness of purpose, a definite life cycle, complex interdependencies, some or all unique elements, and an environment of conflict
  • Project management, though not problem-free, is the best way to accomplish certain goals
  • Projects often start slow, build up speed while using considerable resources, and then slow down as completion nears
  • This text is organized along the project life cycle concept:
    • Project Initiation (Chapters 2-6)
    • Project Implementation (Chapters 7-11)
    • Project Termination (Chapters 12-13)