Chapter 4, Section 1 The Thirteen English Colonies
The Puritans Leave England for Massachusetts • Migration to Massachusetts began during the 1630 by a religious group known as the Puritans. • Puritans: unlike the pilgrims, puritans did not want to separate entirely from the Church of England.- • They hoped to reform the church by introducing simpler forms of worship, such as doing away with many practices inherited from the Roman Catholic Church such as, organ music, finely decorated houses of worhsip, and speical clothing for priests.
Leaving England During “Evil Times” Puritans were a powerful group in England, which consisted of mostly well educated farmers. King Charles I, disliked the Puritans way of life and canceled puritans business charters and even had some thrown in jail. As a result, the were able to convince royal officials to grant them a charter to form a Massachusetts Bay Company.
Leaving England During “Evil Times” cont. The Companies plan was to build a society based off of biblical laws and teachings. John Winthrop, a lawyer and devout Puritan, believed that the new colony would set an example for the world!
Governing the Colony John Winthrop and a party of more than 1,000 arrived in North American in 1630. Winthrop was chosen as the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. There was a major issue with voting rights in Massachusetts, only stockholders could vote. Those who were not stock holders, resented taxes and laws passed by a government in which they had no say.
Governing the Colony Puritan leaders wished to keep non-Puritans out of the government. As a result, only men who were church goers, were allowed to vote. Male church members also elected representatives to an assembly called the General Court.
Thomas Hooker Founds Connecticut May 1636, Puritan leader Thomas Hooker, led 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay Colony. They went west driving cattle, sheep and pigs along an Indian trails. When they reached the Connecticut River they built a town, which they called Hartford.
Thomas Hooker Founds Connecticut cont.. Hooker left Massachusetts because he believed the governor became too powerful. He wanted to set up a colony with strict limits on government. The settlers wrote a strict form of government known as the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut in 1639.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut 1. Gave men the right to vote who owned land, including those who were not church goers 2. Limited the Governors Power. Connecticut became a separate colony in 1662 and by that time 15 towns were thriving along the Connecticut river.
Roger Williams Settles Rhode Island • Williams was a young minister of Salem. • He believed the Puritan church had to much power. • He also believed that there should be a separation between church and state, since political ideas could corrupt the church. • Role of the State should be to maintain order and peace. • He also felt the church did not have the right to force people to attend religious services.
Roger Williams cont….. Rogers also believed in Religious Tolerance, which means a willingness to let others practice their own beliefs. Puritan leaders viewed Williams as a threat and ordered him to leave Massachusetts. Williams fled to Narragansett Bay, because he believed he would be sent back to England. After a few years it became the English Colony of Rhode Island.
Rhode Island Williams put into practice his ideas on tolerance. He allowed complete freedom of religion for Protestants, Jews, and Catholics. Gave all white men the right vote.
Anne Hutchinson Speaks Out A devout Puritan. After church her friends would flock to her house to discuss the minister’s sermon. Puritan Leaders became angry and believed her religious' opinions were full of errors.
Anne Hutchinson cont.. According to Puritan leaders, women did not have the right to explain God’s Law. As a result, Hutchinson was forced to appear before the Massachusetts General Court in 1637. Her downfall came when she told Puritan leaders that “God spoke directly to her”.
Anne Hutchinson cont.. Puritans believed that God only spoke through the bible. As a result, the court ordered her and her family to leave the colony. In 1638, Anne and her family arrived in Rhode Island. As a result, Anne Hutchinson became an important symbol of religious freedom.
Puritans at War with Native Americans William Penn and Roger Williams tried to treat Native Americans fairly. As more and more English settlers came to the colonies they began to take over more and more Indian land. By 1670, 45,000 English settlers lived in New England.
Puritans at War with Native Americans cont… The largest conflict came in 1675 between English settlers and Indian Chief Metacom (aka King Philip). Metacom and his people were determined to drive English settlers off of their land. As a result they became attacking towns. In the end they destroyed 12 towns and killed over 600 people.
Religion and Family • Sabbath- Holy day of rest. On Sundays puritans were not allowed to play games or visit taverns, talk or drink. • The law required everyone to attend church on Sundays. • Men sat on side of the church while the women sat on the other.
Government Town Meetings: settlers discussed and voted on many issues. This encouraged the growth of democratic ideas in New England.
Chapter 4, Section 2 The Middle Colonies
New Netherland Becomes New York The Dutch set up the colony New Netherlands along the Hudson river. New Netherlands became a thriving port do to trading with Indians and the selling of Beaver skins. To encourage farming, Dutch officials granted large parcels of land to a few rich families. Owners of these large estates were Patroons.
New Netherlands becomes N.Y. cont By 1664 , the rivalry between England and the Netherlands had reached its peak!! By December, English warships had entered into New Amsterdam's harbor. Dutch Governor Peter Stuyvesant was unable to defend the city and had to surrender without even firing a shot.
New Netherlands becomes N.Y. cont As a result, King Charles II gave New Netherland to his brother, the Duke of York. He then renamed the colony “New York” in the Dukes honor.
New Jersey Separates from N.Y. • New York had stretched as far south as Delaware. • The Duke decided that the colony was too big to govern easy. • They gave some land to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret and they set a proprietary colony , which they called New Jersey, in 1664. • Proprietary Colony – the king gave land to one or more people in return for yearly payment. • The proprietors were allowed to divide the land and rent it to others.
New Jersey Separates from N.Y. N.J. had fertile land and a wealth of other resources which attracted people from all over such as Finland, Ireland, Scotland, Germany, and of course the English and Dutch. By 1702, New Jersey became a Royal Colony, which is a colony under the direct control of the English crown.
The Founding of Pennsylvania William Penn, founded the colony of Pennsylvania in 1681. He was a personal friend of King Charles II. He Joined the Quakers, who were the most despised religious groups in England.
The Quakers • They were Protestant reformers. • They believed that men, women, and children were all equal under God’s sight. • Women were allowed to preach and refused to bow or remove their hats in presence of nobles. • In England Quakers were jailed or even hanged for their beliefs. • Penn went to King Charles II for help. • As a result the king gave Penn a charter naming him proprietor of a large tract of land. The new colony would be know as Pennsylvania.
A Policy of Fairness • Penn wanted his new colony to be a model of religious freedom • As a result, Protestants, Catholics, and Jews went to Pennsylvania to escape persecution. • Penn also spoke out for fair treatment of Native Americans and believed the land in North American belonged to them. • Settlers should pay Indians for the land. • Indians respected Penn and there was peace between them for years.
The Colony Grows Large numbers of German speaking Protestants came to Pennsylvania. They were known as Pennsylvania Dutch. African slaves were also brought to Pennsylvania which made up 1/3 of all new arrivals. The capital city of Pennsylvania was Philadelphia “the city of brotherly love”.
Life in the Middle Colonies Most people made a living by farming in the Middle colonies. The land was more fertile there than in the New England colonies. Growing seasons also lasted longer than in New England.
A thriving Economy in the Eastern Countries Cash Crops - crops that are sold for money at the market. The Middle Colonies made so much grain they became known as the “Breadbasket Colonies. Farmers also raised herds of cattle, goats, and pigs and sent tons of meat each year to the ports in N.Y. and Penn.
A thriving Economy in the Eastern Countries cont…. There were also large numbers of artisans in the Middle Colonies. In time, Pennsylvania became a center of manufacturing and crafts. Settlers also profited from the regions rich iron ore deposits.
Middle Colony Homes Homes in Pennsylvania were far apart from each other. As a result there were county meetings instead of town meetings. Swedish settlers introduced Log Cabins to America. The Dutch used red bricks to build narrow high walled houses. German settlers introduced wood-burning stove that heated a home better than a fire place.
Chapter 4, Section 3 The Southern colonies
Setting the Scene The Mason- Dixon Line - was a more than just the boundary between Pennsylvania and Maryland. It divided the Middle colonies from the Southern Colonies.
Lord Baltimore’s Colony of Maryland In 1632, Sir George Calvert persuaded King Charles I to grant him land for a new colony. He wanted to build a colony where Roman Catholics could practice their religion freely. He named the Colony Maryland in honor of Queen Henrietta Maria, the kings wife.
Settling the Colony • Maryland was truly the land of the plenty such as fish, oysters, and crabs. • Remembering the hardships at Jamestown, the new comers to Maryland avoided swampy lowlands. • Their first town was St. Mary’s. -Eager to attract more settlers, Lord Baltimore made generous land grants who brought over servants, women, and children.
Settling the Colony cont… • Two sisters took advantage of Lord Baltimore’s offer of land. • Margaret and Mary Brent • They arrived in Maryland with nine male servants. • Set up two plantations consisting of 1,000 acres each.
Religious Tolerance • To ensure that the population of Maryland continued to grow, Lord Baltimore welcomed Protestants and Catholics into the colony. • In 1649, he helped pass an Act of Toleration. • This law provided religious freedom for all Christians. • This act did not extend toward Jews.
Bacon’s Rebellion In Virginia more and more settlers began moving inland onto Indian lands to try and make a profit growing tobacco. There were several bloody clashes between English settlers and Indians. English settlers asked the governor to take action but he refused because he was profiting from fur trade with the Indians.
Nathaniel Bacon In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon, a young farmer, organized men and women on the frontier. They raided all Indian villages regardless if they were friendly or not! He then led his followers into Jamestown where they burned the capital.
Bacon continued This uprising was known as Bacon’s Rebellion, which lasted only a short time. The Governor hanged 23 of Bacon’s Followers.
The Carolinas In 1663, a group of eight English Nobles received a grant from King Charles II. The Settlement took place in two separate areas, North and South.
The Carolinas cont.. Settlers in the northern part of the Carolinas were mostly poor tobacco farmers. They were farmers who left Virginia, and they acquired small areas of land. Eventually in 1712, this area became known as North Carolina. South Carolina was formed in 1719 and its capital was Charleston.
Rise of Plantation Slavery In 1685 farmers realized that rice grew well in swampy areas. Carolina rice became profitable as a result of slaves that were brought over from Africa. Farmers later learned to grow Indigo, which was a plant that was used to create a blue dye.
Rise of Plantation Slavery Planters needed large numbers of workers to grow rice. They tried to enslave Indians to work but many died from disease. Planters then turned slaves from Africa who were brought here against their will. Soon Africans outnumbered Europeans in America 2 to 1.
Georgia Last of England's 13 colonies. James Oglethrope, an English Soldier, founded Georgia in 1732. He wanted Georgia to be a place where debtors could make a fresh start.
Georgia cont.. • Debtors - people who owed money they could not pay back. • English law stated debtors could be imprisoned until they paid what they owed. • As a result, after jail they ad no money or place to live. -Oglethorpe offered to pay for debtors and other people to travel to Georgia. -In 1733 the colonies first settlement was built in Savannah Georgia consisting of 120 colonists.. -Georgia’s population and productivity began to thrive when Oglethorpe allowed slave labor.
Tidewater Plantation Southern colonies ad warmer weather and thrived at growing tobacco. South Carolina and Georgia excelled in growing indigo and rice. There were roughly 20 to 100 slaves working on plantations, most of which worked in the fields. Others were skilled laborers or house servants.