Final review commercial
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Final Review Commercial. Power Plants. Carburetor Heat Mixture. Fuel Injection. Auxiliary Fuel Pump Fuel Flow Indicator Vapor Lock Exhaust Gas Temperature Cylinder Head Temperature. Mixture. Best Economy Mixture Best Power Mixture. Abnormal Combustion. Preignition Detonation.

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Power plants
Power Plants

  • Carburetor Heat

  • Mixture

Fuel injection
Fuel Injection

  • Auxiliary Fuel Pump

  • Fuel Flow Indicator

  • Vapor Lock

  • Exhaust Gas Temperature

  • Cylinder Head Temperature


  • Best Economy Mixture

  • Best Power Mixture

Abnormal combustion
Abnormal Combustion

  • Preignition

  • Detonation

Turbocharging systems
Turbocharging Systems

  • Manifold Pressure Gauge

  • Critical Altitude

  • Service Ceiling

  • Overboost

Constant speed propellers
Constant Speed Propellers

  • Blade Angle

  • Pitch Angle

  • Governing Range

  • Propeller Control

  • Efficiency

Oxygen systems
Oxygen Systems

  • Continuous Flow

  • Diluter Demand

  • Pressure Demand

Oxygen masks
Oxygen Masks

  • Oronasal Rebreather

    • Color Coded Red Pilot

  • Quick Donning

    • Diluter Demand

    • Pressure Demand

Oxygen service
Oxygen Service

  • Aviator Breathing Oxygen

  • Oxygen Duration Charts

  • FBO

  • Never deplete below 50 psi


  • Outflow Valve

  • Safety/dump Valve

  • Isobaric Range

  • Differential Range

Oxygen requirements
Oxygen Requirements

  • Part 91

    • 12,500 to 14,000 over 30 minutes

    • 14,000 for crew members

    • 15,000 for passengers

Human factors
Human Factors

  • Hypoxia

  • Hyperventilation

Ice control systems
Ice Control Systems

  • Anti-icing

  • De-icing

Landing gear systems
Landing Gear Systems

  • Electrical Gear Systems

  • Hydraulic Gear Systems

  • Electrohydraulic Systems

Emergency extension
Emergency Extension

  • Hand Crank

  • Hand Pump Hydraulic System

  • Freefall System

  • Carbon dioxide pressurized system

Fundamental flight maneuvers
Fundamental Flight Maneuvers

  • Straight and Level

  • Turns

  • Climbs

  • Descents

Four aerodynamic forces
Four Aerodynamic Forces

  • Lift

  • Thrust

  • Drag

  • Weight

  • When are they in equilibrium?

Bernoulli s principle
Bernoulli’s Principle

  • As the velocity of a fluid increase, its internal pressure decreases

  • High pressure under the wing and lower pressure above the wing’s surface

Controlling lift
Controlling Lift

  • Increase airspeed

  • Change the angle of attack

  • Change the shape of the airfoil

  • Change the total area of the wings

Angle of attack
Angle of Attack

  • Directly controls the distribution of pressure acting on a wing. By changing the angle of attack, you can control the airplane’s lift, airspeed and drag.

Angle of attack1
Angle of Attack

  • Angle of attack at which a wing stalls remains constant regardless of weight, dynamic pressure, bank angle or pitch attitude.


  • Plain

  • Split

  • Slotted

  • Fowler

Ground effect
Ground Effect

  • Within one wingspan of the ground

  • An airplane leaving ground effect will experience an increase in what kind of drag?

Final review commercial

  • What kind of drags rate of increase is proportional to the square of the airspeed?

  • Parasite Drag

  • What kinds of drag make up parasite Drag

Load factor
Load Factor

  • Ratio between the lift generated by the wings at any given time divided by the total weight of the airplane.

Load factor1
Load Factor

  • A heavily loaded plane stalls at a higher speed than a lightly loaded airplane.

  • It needs a higher angle of attack to generate required lift at any given speed than when lightly loaded.

Aircraft stability
Aircraft Stability

  • Achieved by locating the center of gravity slightly ahead of the center of lift

  • Need a tail down force on the elevator


  • The horizontal component of lift.

  • Load Factor and Turns

  • The relationship between angle of bank , load factor, and stall speed is the same for all airplanes

Density altitude
Density Altitude

  • High

  • Hot

  • Humid

Surface winds
Surface Winds

  • Headwind or tailwind component

    • a 10 knot headwind might improve performance by 10%

    • a 10 knot tailwind might degrade performance by 40%

Performance charts
Performance Charts

  • Experience Test Pilots

  • Factory new Airplanes

  • Repeated Tests using Best Results

  • Format -Table -Graphic

Cruise charts
Cruise Charts

  • Range is the distance an airplane can travel with a given amount of fuel

  • Endurance is the length of time the airplane can remain in the air

Cruise charts1
Cruise Charts

  • Maximum range is at L/Dmax or best glide speed

  • Maximum endurance is about 76% or best glide speed

  • Generally close to stall speed

Excessive weight
Excessive Weight

  • Higher takeoff speed

  • Longer takeoff run

  • Reduced rate and angle of climb

  • Lower maximum altitude

Excessive weight1
Excessive Weight

  • Shorter range and endurance

  • Reduced cruise speed and maneuverability

  • Higher stall speed

  • Higher landing speed and longer landing roll

Forward cg effects
Forward CG Effects

  • Higher takeoff speed and ground roll

  • Reduced rate and angle of climb

  • Lower maximum altitude

  • Reduced maneuverability

Forward cg effects1
Forward CG Effects

  • Higher stalling speed

  • Reduction in performance caused by increased tail-down loading

  • Reduced pitch authority

Beyond aft cg effects
Beyond Aft CG Effects

  • Decreased stability and increased susceptibility to over control

  • Increased risk of stalls and spins of which recovery may be difficult or impossible

Weight shift computations
Weight Shift Computations

Weight of Cargo Moved Distance CG moves

Airplane weight = Distance Between Arm locations

Final review commercial

  • Frequency 121.5 and 243.0

  • Battery

    • 1 hour of cumulative use

    • One half the battery useful life

  • Test during 5 minutes after the hour

Diverting for emergencies
Diverting for Emergencies

  • Time is of the essence

  • Turn to new course as soon as possible

  • Use rule of thumb computations, estimates and shortcuts

Engine temperature
Engine Temperature

  • Oil cools the internal portion of the engine

  • High temperature is often a sign of low oil level

Heating system
Heating System

  • Heating in most aircraft is by exhaust manifold-type

  • Crack in the system can allow carbon monoxide into the cabin

  • If your aircraft backfires during run up, have it checked

Engine failure takeoff
Engine Failure(Takeoff)

  • Lower the nose and maintain a safe airspeed


  • Slow to maneuvering speed

  • Maintain a level attitude

  • Do not chase the pitot static instruments

Spatial disorientation
Spatial Disorientation

  • Rely on instrument indications

  • Ignore body sensations

Emergency descent
Emergency Descent

  • Reduce the throttle to idle

  • Roll into a bank angle of approximately 30-45 degrees

  • Set propeller to low pitch ( High RPM)

Emergency descent1
Emergency Descent

  • Extend landing gear and Flap as recommended by the manufacturer

  • Do not exceed VNE, VLE, VFE, or VA if turbulent

Best glide speed
Best Glide Speed

  • Gear and Flaps retracted

  • Propeller to low RPM (High Pitch)

  • Pitch

  • Trim

Best glide speed1
Best Glide Speed

  • Checklist

  • Any deviation from the best glide speed will reduce the distance you can glide

Lost procedures
Lost Procedures

  • Climb

  • Communicate

  • Confess

  • Comply

  • Conserve

Lost procedures1
Lost Procedures

  • Radar

  • DF Steer

  • Emergency Frequency 121.5


  • Objective - Knowledge of elements

  • Positive and accurate control of aircraft with shortest ground roll and steepest angle of climb

  • Proper airspeeds VR, VX, and VY


  • Maintain VX =5/-0 KTS

  • After clearing the obstacle accelerate to VY +5/-5

  • Retract the landing gear and flaps after a positive rate of climb or as recommended

  • Common takeoff errors
    Common Takeoff Errors

    • Failure to use the entire runway

    • Improper positioning of the flight controls and wing flaps

    • Improper engine operation during short field takeoff and climb out

    Common takeoff errors1
    Common Takeoff Errors

    • Inappropriate removal of hand from throttle

    • Poor directional control

    • Improper use of brakes

    Short field landing
    Short Field Landing

    • Consider the wind conditions, landing surface and obstructions

      • Height of obstructions dictate how steep the approach will have to be

    Short field landing1
    Short Field Landing

    • Descent angle will be steeper than a normal approach. Aim point will be closer to the obstacle

    • Aim point will be short of the touchdown point

    • Select a go around point, normally before descending below barriers

    Common errors
    Common Errors

    • Improper use of landing performance data and limitations

    • Failure to establish approach landing configuration at appropriate time or in proper sequence

    Common errors1
    Common Errors

    • Failure to maintain a stabilized approach

    • Improper technique in use of power, wing flaps and trim

    Common errors2
    Common Errors

    • Improper removal of hand from throttle

    • Improper technique during round out and touchdown

    Common errors3
    Common Errors

    • Poor directional control after touchdown

    • Improper use of brakes

    Common errors4
    Common Errors

    • Improper initial positioning of the flight controls or wing flaps

    • Allowing the airplane to stop on the takeoff surface prior to initiating takeoff

    • Improper power application

    Common errors5
    Common Errors

    • Inappropriate removal of hand from throttle

    • Poor directional control

    Common errors6
    Common Errors

    • Improper use of brakes

    • Improper pitch attitude during liftoff

      • Dragging tail of aircraft on ground

    Common errors7
    Common Errors

    • Settling back to the runway because of too high or too low a pitch attitude

  • Failure to establish and maintain proper climb configuration and airspeed

  • Drift during climbout

  • Soft field landing
    Soft Field Landing

    • Maintain crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing

    • Touch down softly, with no drift, and with the longitudinal axis aligned with the runway

    Soft field landing1
    Soft Field Landing

    • Maintain some power to assist in making a soft touchdown

    • Hold it off to slow airspeed and establish a nose high pitch attitude

    Soft field landing2
    Soft Field Landing

    • After touchdown maintain back pressure to keep the nose wheel off the ground

    • Maintain full back pressure

  • Maintain after landing proper position of the flight controls and taxi speed

  • Common errors8
    Common Errors

    • Improper technique in use of power, wing flaps and trim

    • Inappropriate removal of hand from throttle

    • Improper technique during roundout and touchdown

    Common errors9
    Common Errors

    • Failure to hold back elevator pressure after touchdown

    • Closing the throttle too soon after touchdown

    Common errors10
    Common Errors

    • Poor directional control after touchdown

    • Improper use of brakes

    Enter steep turn
    Enter Steep Turn

    • Heading toward reference point roll into a coordinated turn with an angle of bank of 50o +5/-5

    • As the turn begins, add back pressure to increase the angle of attack

    Enter steep turn1
    Enter Steep Turn

    • As you go through 30o, add power if necessary to maintain entry altitude and airspeed

    Enter steep turn2
    Enter Steep Turn

    • Trim to relieve excess control pressure

    • Begin rollout one half the angle of bank 20-25 degrees before your reference point

    • Look and clear before all turns.

    Final review commercial

    Maintain altitude 100
    Maintain Altitude angle of bank+100

    • Maintain entry altitude and airspeed throughout the entire maneuver

    • During rollout release the back pressure or if using trim apply

    Common errors11
    Common Errors angle of bank

    • Improper pitch, bank, and power coordination during entry and rollout

    • Uncoordinated use of the flight controls

    Common errors12
    Common Errors angle of bank

    • Inappropriate control applications

    • Improper technique in correcting altitude deviations

    • Loss or orientation

    Common errors13
    Common Errors angle of bank

    • Excessive deviation from desired heading during rollout


    Chandelles angle of bank

    Altitude angle of bank

    • FAA requires the maneuver be performed no lower than 1,500 ft AGL

    • Pick an altitude that is easy to identify on your altimeter

    Final review commercial
    Bank angle of bank

    • Establish but do not exceed 30o angle of bank

    • Enter using a smooth coordinated level turn

    Apply power and pitch
    Apply Power and Pitch angle of bank

    • After establishing a level 30o banked turn start a climbing turn by applying back elevator pressure to attain the highest pitch attitude at the 90o point

    Common errors14
    Common Errors angle of bank

    • Improper pitch, bank, and power coordination during entry or completion

      • Pitch up too fast will cause a stall

      • Pitch too slow or allow the pitch to decrease will cause you to reach 180o point at too high an airspeed

    Common errors15
    Common Errors angle of bank

    • Adjust power prior to the maneuver to establish cruise flight and increase after bank is established and as pitch is being increased

    • No other power changes are made

    Common errors16
    Common Errors angle of bank

    • Uncoordinated use of flight controls

      • Maintain coordinated flight

      • Compensate for torque and aileron drag

      • Check the ball in the inclinometer

    Common errors17
    Common Errors angle of bank

    • Improper planning and timing of pitch and bank attitude changes

      • During the first 90o of turn the bank is constant

      • At the 90o point you should have reached the maximum pitch

    Common errors18
    Common Errors angle of bank

    • During the second 90o, pitch attitude remains constant and the bank is slowly reduced

    • At the 180o point, the pitch attitude is constant and the roll out to wings level is completed

    Common errors19
    Common Errors angle of bank

    • Plan and time the pitch and bank changes while dividing you attention

  • Factors related to failure to achieve maximum performance

    • Improper pitch

    • Improper bank

  • Lazy eights

    Lazy Eights angle of bank

    Objective angle of bank

    • Lazy eights require smooth coordinated use of the flight controls

      • At no time are you straight and level

      • Maneuver requires constantly changing control pressure

    Plan orient and maneuver
    Plan,Orient and Maneuver angle of bank

    At 45o

    Altitude Increasing

    Airspeed Decreasing

    Pitch Attitude Maximum

    Bank Angle 15o

    Plan orient and maneuver1
    Plan,Orient and Maneuver angle of bank

    At 90o

    Altitude Maximum

    Airspeed Minimum

    Pitch Attitude Level

    Bank Angle 30o

    Plan orient and maneuver2
    Plan,Orient and Maneuver angle of bank

    At 135o

    Altitude Decreasing

    Airspeed Increasing

    Pitch Attitude Minimum

    Bank Angle 15o

    Plan orient and maneuver3
    Plan,Orient and Maneuver angle of bank

    At 180o

    Altitude Entry

    Airspeed Entry

    Pitch Attitude Level

    Bank Angle 0o

    Common errors20
    Common Errors angle of bank

    • Poor selection of reference points

      • Easily identified

      • Not too close

    • Uncoordinated use of the flight controls

    Common errors21
    Common Errors angle of bank

    • Maintain coordinated flight

    • Compensate for torque

    • Check inclinometer

  • Unsymmetrical loops from poor pitch and bank attitude changes

  • Common errors22
    Common Errors angle of bank

    • Stalling before reaching the 90o point

    • Excessive diving

    • Rushing the angle of bank

  • Inconsistent airspeed and/or altitude at key points

  • Common errors23
    Common Errors angle of bank

    • Adjust power after the first maneuver if off entry airspeed or altitude Loss of orientation. Need to observe your reference point as well as your attitude indicator, altimeter and airspeed indicator

    Common errors24
    Common Errors angle of bank

    • Excessive deviation from reference points

      • Each 45o segment must be preplanned and the proper pitch and bank attained

    Eights on pylons

    Eights-on Pylons angle of bank

    Objective angle of bank

    • At a given groundspeed there is an associated altitude at which the airplane will appear to pivot about the point and is called the pivotal altitude

    • The higher the groundspeed the higher the pivotal altitude

    Objective angle of bank

    • In strong wind, altitude changes will be greater e.g. 100 to 200 feet

    • In light wind, altitude changes will be smaller e.g. 50 to 100 feet

    • Wind calm means no change to pivotal altitude

    Determine the pivotal altitude
    Determine the Pivotal Altitude angle of bank

    • To determine the pivotal altitude fly at an altitude well above the pivotal altitude then reduce power and descend at cruise airspeed in a medium bank turn.

    Determine the pivotal altitude1
    Determine the Pivotal Altitude angle of bank

    • The reference line will move back until the pivotal altitude is reached. If you continue to descend the reference line will move forward

    • You can estimate the pivotal altitude by using the following formula

    Determine the pivotal altitude2
    Determine the Pivotal Altitude angle of bank

    (Groundspeed in knots)2 = Pivotal Altitude


    1002= 885


    Perform the maneuver
    Perform the Maneuver angle of bank

    • As you turn into the wind the groundspeed decreases causing the pivotal altitude to decrease causing you to descend to maintain the pivotal altitude

    Orientation and planning
    Orientation and Planning angle of bank

    • Remain oriented on the location of the pylons and the direction of the wind

    • Plan ahead

    • Divide your attention between coordinated airplane control and outside visual reference

    Use pivotal altitude
    Use Pivotal Altitude angle of bank

    • Do not use rudder to force the reference line forward or backward to the pylon

    Common errors25
    Common Errors angle of bank

    • Faulty Entry technique

      • Poor planning

      • Not being at pivotal altitude

      • Rolling into a bank too soon

    • Poor Planning, Orientation and Division of Attention

    Common errors26
    Common Errors angle of bank

    • Lack of anticipation of changes in groundspeed

    • Poor pylon selection

    • Poor division of attention. Uncoordinated flight control applications and not looking out for other traffic

    Common errors27
    Common Errors angle of bank

    • Uncoordinated flight control application

    • Use of improper line of sight reference

    • Application of rudder alone to maintain line of sight on pylon

      • Most Common Error

    Common errors28
    Common Errors angle of bank

    • Do not Yaw the wing backward with rudder if the reference line is ahead of the pylon

  • Improper timing of turn entries and rollouts

    • Usually do to poor planning

  • Common errors29
    Common Errors angle of bank

    • Rollout needs to be timed to allow the airplane to proceed diagonally to a point downwind of the second pylon

    Common errors30
    Common Errors angle of bank

    • Improper correction for wind between pylons

    • Selection of pylons where there is no suitable force landing area within gliding distance

    • Large pitch and airspeed changes