Mutations. Mutation effects. Reproductive Cells -mutation in DNA sequence of an egg or sperm cell -mutation is passed on to offspring - possible effects include: production of a new trait, a dysfunctional protein, lethal, or positive effects (evolution). Mutation effects. Body Cells
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Mutation effects • Reproductive Cells • -mutation in DNA sequence of an egg or sperm cell • -mutation is passed on to offspring • - possible effects include: production of a new trait, a dysfunctional protein, lethal, or positive effects (evolution)
Mutation effects • Body Cells • - change in the DNA sequence of a body cell (liver cell, skin cell etc) • -not passed on to offspring (only affects the individual) • -possible effects include: may damage the function of that cell • Ex: a stomach cell that loses the ability to make acid for digestion, when the cell divides, the mutation continues
Types of mutation • Point mutation =a change in a single base pair in DNA
Point mutation effects • possibly the wrong amino acid is made so the function of the protein could be messed up
Types of mutations • Frameshift mutation = a single base is added or deleted from the DNA sequence which causes a shift in the reading of the codons
Frameshift mutation effects • Possible effects: all amino acids after the addition or deletion are wrong SO much worse!
Types of mutations • Chromosomal mutation = a change in a chromosome (part is broken off or parts switch places) • Examples: • deletion • insertion • inversion • translocation • Possible Effects: offspring usually dies; if not the offspring is sterile
Causes of mutations • Spontaneous- mistakes during base pairing (transcription) • Mutagen= any agent that can cause a change in DNA • Ex: 1. Radiation (Xrays, UV light) 2. Chemicals (asbestos, cyanide, formaldehyde) 3. High Temperatures