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Going Deeper with Problem Identification using the SDF. PRESENTED BY: SHEILA R. COLLECTOR OSE BEHAVIOR SPECIALIST KEREN KREITZER SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGIST. Agenda. Components of Problem ID Use the SDF to document Problem ID Intervention Design & Implementation based on Problem ID.

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going deeper with problem identification using the sdf

Going Deeper with Problem Identification using the SDF

PRESENTED BY:

SHEILA R. COLLECTOR

OSE BEHAVIOR SPECIALIST

KEREN KREITZER

SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGIST

agenda
Agenda
  • Components of Problem ID
  • Use the SDF to document Problem ID
  • Intervention Design & Implementation based on Problem ID
behavior problem identification
Behavior Problem Identification
  • All Behavior is a form of communication for the student
  • We may not like the way the student is communicating, but we must hear the message
  • The student’s message is reflected in the function of the behavior
key components of problem identification stage
Key Components of Problem Identification Stage
  • Identify the behavior
  • Assess the behavior
  • Develop hypothesis statements
  • Set goals
identify the behavior
Identify the Behavior
  • Define the problem
  • Prioritize problems
  • Don’t rush to solution
  • Reach agreement on the problem
  • Elicit problem relevant information
  • Establish a climate of trust, respect & collaboration
defining behaviors
Defining Behaviors
  • “What behaviors are interfering with the child’s education?”
  • Use concrete, observable terms
  • Do not use subjective terms like “disruptive behaviors” as a definition
assess the behavior
Assess the Behavior
  • Gather baseline frequency, severity, and duration of problem behavior (3-5 points within 2 weeks)
  • When is the problem likely and not likely to occur
  • What events typically happen before and after the problem behavior occurs (ABC data)
a ntecedents to the challenging behavior
Antecedents to the challenging behavior
  • “What are the fast triggers for challenging behaviors?”
  • Include:

1. what child was doing before the behavior

2. who else was in the area

3. what were others’ doing

4. what was said to the child (tone of voice, words used, how many times said, types of prompts)

5. what time of day

c onsequences to the challenging behaviors
Consequences to the challenging behaviors
  • “What events typically follow the challenging behaviors?”
  • Include:

1. planned responses by adults

2. unplanned responses by adults

3. responses of others in the area (peers)

4. words used, tone of voice, affective reactions

contributing factors for challenging behaviors
Contributing Factors for Challenging Behaviors
  • “What other factors are impacting the child’s behavior?”
  • Can include:

1. medication issues

2. allergies

3. sensory issues

4. anxiety, impulsivity, or trouble attending

develop hypothesis statements
Develop Hypothesis Statements
  • Consider whether the problem may be related to specific academic, social, and behavior skill deficits
  • Identify “why” the behavior exists (hypothesis for function of behavior)
  • Look for patterns and inconsistencies
  • Look for strengths, needs and student characteristics
determine instructional match
Determine Instructional Match
  • Student
  • Task
  • Instruction
  • When a gap exists between what a student knows and is able to do and what the learning environment demands, we have an instructional mismatch and need to intervene to make a match.
set goals
Set Goals
  • Based on your baseline data, establish 4-6 week, intermittent and long term goals which include criteria for success
  • Determine how data will be collected for progress monitoring. Is it the same as the data collected for baseline?
  • Who is responsible for data collection?
  • Who is responsible for data analysis?
  • Decide how frequently the data will be recorded
  • Identify a location for keeping all data
  • Set dates for regular reviews of data
sdf case example
SDF case example
  • Sam - 9 years old in third grade
  • Oldest of 4 boys
  • Loves Star Wars and soccer
  • Decodes on a first grade level
  • Has lots of background knowledge
  • Writing is difficult
  • Math is a strength
  • Parents separated
  • Retained in kindergarten
  • Easily embarrassed and internalizes feelings
  • Has excellent attendance
sdf case example1
SDF case example

Sam’s behaviors were prioritized into three separate areas:

Work completion

Property destruction (ripping papers, ripping folders, breaking pencils)

Eloping - leaving his assigned seat/area without permission

There was no instructional match

sdf case example2
SDF case example

Work completion during reading and content

7/11 -0%

7/12 0%

7/13 -0%

7/14 -0%

7/15 - 0%

4 week goal - during reading and content, Sam will complete 10% of his work by 8/12

6 week goal -during reading and content, Sam will complete 15% of his work

8 week goal -during reading and content, Sam will complete 25% of his work

sdf case example3
SDF case example

Property destruction (frequency count during reading and content)

7/11 - 6 times

7/12 -4 times

7/13 -5 times

4 week goal - during reading and content, Sam will rip/break papers, folders and pencils no more than 4 times by 8/12

sdf case example4
SDF case example

Leaving the area without permission (eloping)

7/11 - 2 time

7/12 -2 times

7/13 -1 times

7/14 - 0 times

7/15 - 2 times

4 week goal - during reading and content, Sam will ask for permission to leave his assigned seat/area no more than 1 time by 8/12

sdf graph
SDF Graph

Will you graph all 3 behaviors on one sheet? Can color code behaviors Or fill out 3 separate graphs

How often will the progress be recorded? (recommended to graph weekly but can be daily)

Draw aim line (visual representation of short term goal)

At the 4 week goal date - review progress. Were goals met? Capture discussion on back of SDF (summary of meeting, follow up activities, next meeting date/time)

behavior intervention design implementation
Behavior Intervention Design & Implementation
  • Develop intervention strategies based on hypothesis, function of behavior and goals
  • Document on SDF (when, how often, person responsible)
  • Can think of strategies in terms of antecedent management, responsive and educative
purpose of antecedent management
Purpose of Antecedent Management
  • To reduce the level and the frequency of the challenging behaviors
  • To reduce the level of frustration and anxiety for the child
  • Once the child is calmer, he is more able to learn alternatives to challenging behaviors
purpose of educative strategies
Purpose of Educative Strategies
  • To teach the child alternatives to challenging behaviors
  • Functions should be addressed--teach the child a new skill (educative strategy) to achieve the same function
purpose of responsive strategies
Purpose of Responsive Strategies
  • To motivate the child to use the educative strategies to achieve the functions instead of the challenging behaviors
    • Use preferred consequences to motivate
  • To discourage the child from using challenging behaviors
    • Use non-preferred consequences to discourage
responsive strategies
Responsive Strategies
  • Think about the function of the behavior
  • Establish a hierarchy of responses to behaviors
  • Let the “punishment” fit the “crime”
  • Remember: “The most severe consequence for a student is the removal of a reinforcer” (--M. Wheeler)
managing antecedents
Managing Antecedents

Antecedents:

1. Writing tasks

2. 2 or more adults

giving directions

3. Saying “no”

4. 30-45 minutes time on task required

5. Unsure of what’s next

Strategies:

  • ?
  • ?
  • ?
  • ?
  • ?
examples of antecedent management strategies
Examples of Antecedent Management Strategies

1. For Writing Tasks:

  • Teach child to use graphic organizers
  • Give choices (paper, medium, how many)
  • Use multiple choice, fill-ins, and word banks in response format
  • Explore the use of technology to facilitate written expression (word processing, Co-Writer, Intellikeys, etc)
examples of antecedent management strategies1
Examples of Antecedent Management Strategies

2. For over-stimulating delivery of directions:

  • Only adult directs at a time
  • Allow ample processing time
  • No “rapid fire” directions
  • Use “speak and retreat” to direct noncompliance and avoid a power struggle
examples of antecedent management strategies2
Examples of Antecedent Management Strategies

3. For saying “no”:

  • Use “first, then”, if appropriate

“First math problems, then get a drink”

  • Use positive language when directing the child

“Hands on the desk” instead of “Don’t

hit me!”

examples of antecedent management strategies3
Examples of Antecedent Management Strategies

4. When “excessive” time on task is required:

  • Add movement breaks to the child’s daily schedule
  • Use jobs to foster self-esteem and give the child a movement opportunity
  • Chunk activities so that “excessive” time on task is not required
examples of antecedent management strategies4
Examples of Antecedent Management Strategies

5. When the child is unsure of what’s next:

  • Clarify expectations using task check lists
  • Teach the child to use an individual daily schedule
  • Create and review social stories with the child to clarify routines and expectations
purpose of educative strategies1
Purpose of Educative Strategies
  • To teach the child alternatives to challenging behaviors
  • Functions should be addressed--teach the child a new skill (educative strategy) to achieve the same function
examples of educative strategies
Examples of Educative Strategies

Functions:

1. To communicate feelings

2. To gain peer attention

3. To gain staff attention

4. To gain a preferred item

Educative Strategies:

  • ?
  • ?
  • ?
  • ?
examples of educative strategies1
Examples of Educative Strategies
  • 1. To communicate feelings:
  • Use social stories to introduce feelings language
  • Use role plays to help children identify feelings
  • Use comic strip conversations to help children understand triggers for feelings
examples of educative strategies2
Examples of Educative Strategies
  • 2. To gain peer attention:
  • Use social stories to introduce a peer interaction skill
  • Use role plays to practice a peer interaction skill
  • Teach the child to use “outer voice” statements to gain peer attention
examples of educative strategies3
Examples of Educative Strategies
  • 3. To gain staff attention:
  • Teach child to ask for help using “outer voice statements” and raising hand
  • Introduce the concept using social stories
  • Practice asking for help using role plays
  • Encourage asking for help using reinforcement system
examples of educative strategies4
Examples of Educative Strategies
  • 4. To gain a preferred item:
  • Child can gain most preferred items using a reinforcement system
  • Introduce the way to gain the item using social stories (“How I earn my reward”)
purpose of responsive strategies1
Purpose of Responsive Strategies
  • To motivate the child to use the educative strategies to achieve the functions instead of the challenging behaviors
    • Use preferred consequences to motivate
  • To discourage the child from using challenging behaviors
    • Use non-preferred consequences to discourage
examples of responsive strategies preferred
Examples of Responsive Strategies--Preferred

To motivate the use of new skills:

  • Praise specifically and frequently
  • Shape behavior by praising approximations of desired behaviors
  • Use behavioral momentum
  • Use a reinforcement system with tangible rewards
examples of responsive strategies non preferred
Examples of Responsive Strategies--Non-preferred

To discourage the use of challenging behaviors:

  • Use natural consequences with teaching components
  • Use a hierarchy of consequences for a hierarchy of behaviors
  • Examples include ignoring with redirection, delay of rewards, loss of rewards
  • Use “practice sessions” instead of detentions
  • Use “time-away” or “quiet time” to help the child calm
responsive strategies reminders
Responsive Strategies--Reminders
  • Do not expect school suspensions to discourage challenging behaviors
  • Remember that loss of a reward is an extremely powerful consequence
  • Don’t create “secondary gains” through your own affective responses
  • Do not give a student who is trying to escape a punitive “time-out”
evaluate the effectiveness of the plan
Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Plan
  • Review all data carefully
  • Look for patterns and inconsistencies
  • Identify key elements for success
  • Are the goals being achieved?
  • Is the plan being implemented consistently?
  • Are there increases in academic performance?
  • Were the reinforcers effective?
modify or terminate the plan
Modify or Terminate the Plan
  • Base all decisions on data
  • Do goals need to be revised?
  • Were the interventions implemented with integrity and consistency?
  • Are the hypothesis accurate?
  • Did we identify the correct problems?
  • What else?