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A Concise Presentation of Climate Change Policies Among the BSEC Countries. Prof. d r Dejan Ivezi ć, University of Belgrade Faculty of Mining and Geology. Belgrade, April 23 rd 2012. Promitheas 4: Knowledge transfer and research needs for preparing mitigation/adaptation policy portfolios.

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A concise presentation of climate change policies among the bsec countries

A Concise Presentation of Climate Change Policies Among the BSEC Countries

Prof. dr Dejan Ivezić,

University of Belgrade Faculty of Mining and Geology

Belgrade, April 23rd 2012

A concise presentation of climate change policies among the bsec countries
Promitheas 4: Knowledge transfer and research needs for preparing mitigation/adaptation policy portfolios

The project aims are the development and evaluation of mitigation/adaptation (M/A) policy portfolios and the prioritization of research needs and gaps for twelve (12) countries:

Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Turkey and Ukraine

characterized as emerging economies.

Main objectives
Main objectives

  • M/A policy portfolios development and assessment

  • Identification of  Needs and Gaps

  • Knowledge transfer procedures

  • Dissemination

    • BSEC,

    • BSEC - PERMIS,

    • BSEC –BC

    • National authorities and market stakeholders

    • National Chambers of Commerce,

    • Relevant departments of United Nations

    • …..


  • Energy Policy and Development Centre of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (GRC)Prof. Dimitrios Mavrakis, Project Coordinator

  • National Observatory of Athens (GRC)

  • Institute for Advanced Studies (AT)

  • TUBITAK – Marmara Research Center(TR)

  • Energy Strategy Centre of the Scientific Research Institute of Energy (ARM)

  • University of Belgrade-Faculty of Mining and Geology (SRB)

  • Institute of Power Engineering (MOL)

  • Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (GR)

  • Finance University (RUS)

  • Institute for Studies and Power Engineering (ROU)

  • Polytechnical University of Tirana (AL)

  • Geotechnological Problems of Oil, Gas and Chemistry (AZ)

  • Black Sea Regional Energy Center (BUL)

  • Energy Saving and Energy Management Institute of “Kiev Polytechnic Institute” (UKR)


  • Tallinn University of Technology (EST)

Energy view of bsec countries 2012 special edition on climate change policies
Energy View of BSEC Countries – 2012- Special edition on Climate Change policies -

Country overview and political profile

Economic profile

National climate change policy

  • Mitigation/Adaptation policies and strategies

  • Mitigation/Adaptation policy instruments Objectives, Target groups, Rules and influencing mechanisms, Implementation network

Energy view of bsec countries 2012 special edition on climate change policies1
Energy View of BSEC Countries – 2012- Special edition on Climate Change policies -

National energy policy

  • Main energy policies and strategies/ policy instruments Objectives, Target groups, Rules and influencing mechanisms, Implementation network

    Green Economy

  • Green trade and investment opportunities RES, CDM, JI, ETS, Energy efficiency, etc

    Tables with available energy and climate policy data

    National data bases necessary for the development of M/A policy portfolio (CD)


  • Became part of the UNFCCC in 1995 and ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2004

  • Albania doesn’t have a separate Strategy on Climate Change but the key policy papers addressing climatic change issues include:

    • The National Strategy for Development and Integration (NSDI) 2007-2013

    • The Environmental Cross-cutting Strategy 2007-2013,

    • The First and Second National Communication;

    • The Albanian Policy Paper for Carbon Finance – November 2009.

    • The Action Plan for the implementation of the Albanian Policy Paper for Carbon Finance;

  • Actually are in process of the preparation:

    • Albanian Strategy for Health Adaptation into the Climate Change Context

    • Action Plan for Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change in Albanian Agricultural Systems


UNFCCC entered into force in 1994, Kyoto Protocol in in 2005.

Mitigation policy

National Program on Energy Saving and Renewable Energy (2007)

The Second National Environmental Action Program (2008)

Action Plan to Reduce Emissions of Hazardous Substances from Motor Vehicles

Law on Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy / Renewable Resources and Energy Efficiency Fund

Adaptation policy

Forest Code

The Law on Nature Protection and Nature Utilization Payments

Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts in Mountain Forest Ecosystems

Second National Communication on Climate Change

Law of RA on Environmental Impact Assessment



  • Ratified Kyoto Protocol in 2000

  • Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources - Climate Change and Ozone Center (Inventory GHG Department, Ozone Department, Climate Change Department and Department of Mitigation and Adaptation)

    • The Law on Energy

    • Law on Utilization of Energy Resources

    • Law About the Environmental Protection

    • Law on Protection of the Environment

    • Law of the Azerbaijan Republic on Protection of Atmospheric Air

  • The problem of adaptation to climate change is very actual but new theme:

    • General Regulations on State environmental and biosphere preserves in the Azerbaijan Republic

    • General Regulations On National Parks of the Azerbaijan Republic

    • Initial National Communication (2000)


  • UNFCCC was ratified in 1995; Kyoto Protocol was ratified in 2002 (GHG - 8%)

  • With its accession to the EU, Bulgaria joined the EU Emission Trading Scheme (2005)

  • The Climate and Energy package is in a process of implementation in compliance and terms of the legislative documents empowered by the EU. MP includes several groups of instruments:

    • Energy policy: diversification of energy carriers (natural gas to households for heating purposes), gradual restructuring of the energy balance, energy efficiency, low-carbon technologies etc.;

    • Legislation: implementation of EU directives and other laws, ordinances and decisions;

    • Market: international emissions and quota trade;

    • Financial: tariffs, funds, programmes, tax policy, subsidies etc.;

    • Voluntary agreements and Dissemination of information.

  • AP - Strategy on the Environment Protection:

    • Early warning systems for disasters and accidents, relating to climate change;

    • Information availability about climate change and new behavioural models issues, directed towards reduction of and prevention from climate change negative effects.

  • The Ministry of Environment and Waters is working on an Adaptation Strategy, which will be ready in 2012.


  • In 1994, ratified UNFCCC, and in 2002, the Kyoto Protocol (- 8% GHG)

  • The following policy documents have been introduced to mitigate climate change:

    • National Programme of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction for 2003-2012.

    • National Programme for Reduction of Air Pollution from Stationary and Mobile Sources for years 2006-2015.

    • National Renewable Energy Action Plan up to 2020.

    • Development Plan 2007−2013 for Enhancing the Use of Biomass and Bioenergy.

    • National Energy Efficiency Programme for 2007-2013.

    • The Ambient Air Protection Act.

    • Environmental Action Plan for 2007–2013.

    • Environmental Charges Act.

    • The Transport Development Plan for 2006–2013.

    • The Estonian Rural Development Plan 2007–2013.

    • The Environmental Monitoring Act.

    • The Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management System Act.

  • There are no direct plans or laws aimed at adaptation to climate change:

    • National Environmental Strategy until 2030.

    • Project of the Nature Conservation Plan until 2020

    • Estonian National Health Plan for 2009-2010

    • HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan

    • Fifth National Communication


  • Laws on ratification of the UNFCCC (1995) and on ratification of the Kyoto Protocol (2009)

  • The prospect of transition of the Kazakhstan economy to low carbon development is substantially defined by political frameworks, the strategic statements are registered in the state documents:

    • The Concept of transition of Republic Kazakhstan to a sustainable development on 2007 – 2024;

    • The Environmental code of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    • The strategic plan for development of Republic Kazakhstan till 2020 (Strategy 2020);

    • Government program on the forced industrially-innovative development of the Republic of

    • Kazakhstan for the period 2010 – 2014;

    • The Strategic plan of the Agency on Construction and Communal Services 2011-2015

    • Law «About support of use of renewed energy sources» (or the RES law, 2009);

    • Law "About electricity industry"(or Energy Law);

    • Law" on energy saving and enhancement of energy efficiency” (draft).

  • Adaptation policy documents:

    • Program on Combating the Desertification in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2005- 2015

    • State Program on Developing the Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian Sea

    • State Program of Rural Territory Development 2004–2015;

    • Program to Fight Desertification 2007– 2017;

    • Program of the Ministry of Environment "Ghasyl-Damu for 2010-2014"


  • ratified the UNFCCC in 1995 and the Kyoto Protocol in 2003

  • Low Carbon Development Strategy of the Republic of Moldova to the year 2020 (draft)

    • propose mitigation solutions providing economic opportunities;

    • highlight barriers to the conversion to low carbon emissions economydevelopment;

    • reinforce and build on existing projects/investments;

    • prioritise the proposed NAMAs;

    • propose activities for international support

  • Law on Renewable Energy

  • Law on Energy Efficiency

  • Energy Strategy of the Republic of Moldova until year 2020


  • National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy is currently under development

  • The National Development Strategy (NDS) for 2008-2011

  • National Strategy for Sustainable Development of the Agricultural Complex for 2008-2015

  • Moldova Second National Communication


  • UNFCCC was ratified in 1994; Kyoto Protocol was ratified in 2005 (GHG - 8%)

  • The existing legal framework in Romania in the field of climate change allows for a coherentapplication of the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, consisting of:

    • primary legislation, including specific acts on climate change;

    • general environmental regulations, including climate change aspects;

    • specific legislation related the sectors to energy, transport, agriculture and forestry, and wastemanagement;

  • As part of its commitments under the UNFCCC, Romania has submitted five nationalcommunications. Romania’s Fifth National Communication to the UNFCCC (NC5) was submitted in 2010.

  • there are no specific adaptation policy instruments. However, taking into account theactions and the legislation adopted at European level, in Romania also appeared the need for theelaboration and the promotion of a „Guide on the adaptation to the effects of the climate changes”,identified also into the National Strategy and National Action Plan on the climate changes (2005)

Russian federation
Russian Federation

  • National climate policy is developed and implemented in three main areas:

    • activities ensuring the implementation of national commitments under the UNFCCC and theKyoto Protocol;

    • national economic and social development, involving complex arrangements to limit GHGemissions;

    • other national programs and activities which stimulate the reduction of GHG emissions andadaptation to climate change.

  • The main concepts of mitigation policy are formulated in a number of official Decrees, Programs, Federal Laws etc (Climate Doctrine of the Russian Federation , Comprehensive Plan of Action on Implementing the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC in the RF...)

  • Limitation of anthropogenic impact on the climate change is also regulated by nationwide programsof economic and social development, as well as by sectoral and corporate programs.

  • The signs of adaptation policy can be found in thefollowing documents:

    • Comprehensive Plan for Implementing the Climate Doctrine of the RussianFederation

    • The Concept of Long-Term Socio-Economic Development of the RF up to 2020

    • The Fifth National Communication


  • Accessed UNFCCC in 2001, Kyoto Protocol in 2007 (entered into force2008)

  • Main policy documents that could be implemented for mitigating of climate change:

    • Energy Law;

    • Decree on Incentive Measures for Electricity Generation Using Renewable Energy Sources and for Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Generation;

    • The First Energy Efficiency Plan of the Republic of Serbia for the Period from 2010 to 2012

    • Law on Planning and Construction;

    • National Strategy for Incorporation of the Republic of Serbia into Clean Development Mechanism -Waste Management, Agriculture and Forestry Sector.

  • The problem of adaptation to climate change is quite new topic, but indirectly could be recognized in Serbian strategic documents and laws:

    • Sustainable Development Strategy (adopted in 2008)

    • National Environmental Protection Program

    • National Strategy for Biodiversity

    • The First National Communication under the UNFCCC


  • Turkey has issued a number of laws in line with international directives and agreements for mitigation:

    • The Environmental Law

    • The Renewable Energy Law

    • The Energy Efficiency Law

    • The Regulation on Heat Insulation in Buildings

    • The Code of Reducing the Ozone Layer Depleting Substance

    • The Regulation on Control of Air Pollution from Domestic Heating

    • The Regulation on Industrial Air Pollution Control

    • The Regulation on Air Quality Assessment and Management

    • The Regulation on Large Combustion Plants

    • The Regulation on the Control Exhaust Gas Emissions from Motor Vehicles in Traffic

    • The National Waste Management Action Plan (2008-2012)

  • Turkey has strategies and action plan to combat climate change effects as follows:

    • National Climate Change Strategy (2010-2020)

    • Climate Change Action Plan

    • Turkey's Climate Change Adaptation Strategy


  • UNFCCC was ratified in 1996, Kyoto Protocol in 2004

  • As part of the Copenhagen Accord, Ukraine committed to ensuring that emissions remain 20% below 1990 levels in 2020.

  • The national policy of Ukraine includes the following legal framework as mitigation policyinstruments:

    • Law for the establishment of “Green” tariff

    • Law that offers tax incentives for energy efficiency and renewable energy investment

    • Law on energy conservation

    • Law on alternative sources of energy

  • At present time, in Ukraine there is no national adaptation policies adopted

Instead of conclusions
Instead of conclusions

  • Mitigation policy exists in all countries but at different levels of development

  • Mitigation policy instruments are mainly directed to energy sector

  • Adaptation is relatively new topic and policy instruments for its implementation are generally at the phase of preparation and/or early implementation

  • Promitheas 4 - National conferences

  • Research needs and gaps

  • Post Rio+20 decisions.