DISTRICT TRAINERS’ TRAINING SEMINAR Jakarta Rotary Institute Thursday 30 November, 2006
Learning Objectives • Preparing Training Leaders • Characteristics of an Adult Learner • Facilitating Learning • Guiding Discussions • Questioning Techniques • Nonverbal Communication
1. Preparing Training Leaders • Training leaders are from a variety of backgrounds. • The Object is to ensure we deliver uniform and consistent training. • Preparatory sessions should occur well in advance so that materials and presentations can be modified.
2. Characteristics of an Adult Learner Understanding the characteristics of an adult learner will help you develop training that is appropriate and effective. Adult learners are • Realistic • Experienced • Unique • Learning pattern • Busy
Training Adult LearnersKeep the characteristics of an adult learner in mind when developing training. When developing training, remember each learner is an individual with specific needs and learning styles.
3. Facilitating Learning The Role of the Facilitator • Making something easier, such as a meeting or discussion. • Neutral individuals - determine, guide and monitor discussions.
A Good Facilitator (Discussion Leader) • Gets people excited about participating right from the beginning • Keeps the group focused and on schedule • Explores critical issues through questioning • Builds consensus from diverse views • Maintains a high energy level and keeps participants engaged • Mitigates negative behavior within the group
The Pace of Discussion Pace discussion has a direct impact on the effectiveness of training. • Pace too slow > few topics and in too detail. • Pace too fast > skims the surface of each topic. • Level of experience in a group influences the discussion tempo. • If participants not well informed, provide more information to sustain discussion. • Carefully posed questions will control the pace of discussions.
4. Guiding DiscussionsTechniques To draw out a silent member: • “What is your opinion of…, Mary?” • “John, from your experience on this general subject, would you. . .? To suggest the need for sharing personal experiences: • “Does anyone know of instances where this has worked?” • “So that I might call on you later and ask you to share your experience, think about your own experience in this matter.”
To call attention to points that have not been considered: • “Based on your experience, what aspects of the problem need further discussion?” • “Before we continue, perhaps we should consider another aspect of the topic.” To use conflict constructively: • “Since we seem unable to resolve this difference now, could we move on to the next point? Perhaps further discussion will reveal additional information about the issue.” • “It may be that a reasonable solution lies somewhere between the two views expressed. What parts of the two views are acceptable to all of us?”
To test the strength of a point of view: • “How many others would agree with the point just raised?” • “How much importance should be attached to this issue?” To prevent a few from dominating the discussion: • “Excuse me. Before you continue, may I ask if anyone has a comment on the point you have just made?” • “Since we have only a few minutes left, could you summarize your remarks so we may hear what the others think?”
To keep the discussion on the agenda: • “Let’s save this topic for the end of the discussion.” • “We’ll cover this issue later in the session. Let’s move on.” To suggest the need for closing the discussion: • “May I ask for two or three final comments before we close?” • “According to my watch, we are scheduled to finish discussion in about five minutes. Is there a final comment?”
5. Questioning Techniques The Importance of Posing Questions Questions are one of the best ways to guide a discussion Asking participants questions can help to :- • Encourage analysis of a topic • Introduce topics not yet discussed • Evoke participants’ stories and experience • Broaden participation • Review a difficult concept • Redirect a discussion
Questions are either close-ended or open-ended. • Close-ended questions seek particular, factual answers. • Open-ended questions, which may not have a correct answer, seek a range of opinions, ideas, or options.
Questioning Techniques Written questions • Those written on flip chart paper Relay questions • Relay a question raised by a participant to the group. Directed questions • Ask specific individuals Reverse questions • Suggest the person posing the question give his or her own answer. Redirected questions • Direct the question to another participant Focused questions • Ask the group if the original question has been answered successfully
6. Nonverbal Communication • Researchers specializing in nonverbal communication have found that 7 percent of a speaker’s perceived attitude is conveyed verbally and 93 percent nonverbally. • Of that 93 percent, 38 percent is attributed to vocal cues, such as pitch and tone, and 55 percent to facial cues.
Voice Qualities and Characteristics • If you are excited, your voice can help convey that excitement. • If you are bored, frightened, or insecure, that may also be conveyed. Facial Expression • Facial expression will identify someone who disagrees with a statement, does not understand a point, or has something to say. • The training leader’s facial expression can express interest or concern without taking the time to formulate the words.
Silence • Standing silently at the beginning of the session may be conveying that it is time to start. • Silence after asking a question lets participants mentally prepare a response. At times, if participants know the subject, it is proper to remain silent. Eyes Eyes help in controlling who speaks as you move around the room. • - judged sincere if looked at the audience 63 percent of the time • - judged insincere if looked at the audience only 20 percent of the time.
Use of Space • Your position in the room affects the flow of training. • Greeting people at the door & standing in the front of the room sends message that you are in control. • Moving closer to a participant may indicate interest. • Moving away may signal that you want to hear another comment.
A Discussion Leader or facilitator must • Prepare well • Be confident • Be a discussion leader and not a teacher • Be early; be punctual • Speak slowly • Eye to eye contact • Avoid looking at the time (watch) • Move around • Be positive • Control time well