Life in the Big City M. Carter Ch 25
Immigration • 1st wave= prior to 1870s- from England, Ireland and Northern Europe • 2nd wave= post 1870s- Southern and Eastern Europe, and Asia and Mexico in the West (until the Chinese Exclusion Act) • General Push and Pull Factors: • Poverty and oppression • Opportunities
Immigrants often had unrealistic expectations perpetrated by misleading advertisements.
Arrival of new groups led to increased ethnic tension among the working class. Highest paid immigrants: British and Irish (skilled) Lowest paid immigrants: Poles, Greeks (unskilled)- began replacing skilled workers
The New Colossus By Emma Lazarus, 1883 Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,With conquering limbs astride from land to land;Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall standA mighty woman with a torch, whose flameIs the imprisoned lightning, and her nameMother of Exiles. From her beacon-handGlows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes commandThe air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame."Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries sheWith silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor,Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,I lift my lamp beside the golden door!" Arrival
Ellis Island 2% were sent back to their homeland “six second exam” checked for contagious eye diseases, heart problems, lice and mental issues
Angel Island Located in California, it was the “Ellis Island” of the West. Asian immigrants were examined here before entering the United States well into the 20th century.
Urban Growth • New York City • 1860= 1 million • 1900= over 3 million • Chicago • 1860= 100,000 • 1900= over 1 million • Immigration a large part of the growth!! • High infant mortality rate, Declining fertility rate, and high death rate b/c of disease
Migration • Transportation technologies brought families into the cities • Factories brought families within walking distance • African Americans- ongoing exodus to northern cities • Emergence of AA communities within cities
Ethnic Communities Migration from the same region, province, village Newspapers and theaters in the native language Native foods Social and religious organizations Helped bring others to the US Culturally cohesive Comfort and familiarity Strong racial/ethnic prejudice from native born Americans
Reemergence of Nativism • Fear of ethnic groups • Resentment among native born Americans • Blamed immigrants for all problems • Lack of jobs • Violence • Poor conditions of city • Immigrant Restriction League- believed immigrants should be screened before admittance to the US to separate the desirables from the undesirables
Changing City Life • Creation of public spaces • Parks- Central Park in NYC • Public buildings- libraries, art galleries, museums, theaters • Paid for by philanthropists • Emergence of mass transit systems • Streetcars and elevated trains • Cable cars (San Francisco) • Subway
Problems in Cities Cities dumped waste into water systems Air pollution – burning coal (transportation & heat) Noise pollution Overcrowding Unsanitary = disease
American Spirit p.103-106 Read Cleaning Up New York (1897) #3 AND Jacob Riis Goes Slumming (1890) #4 Answerthe following questions in your Analysis NB What features of urban life were the worst contributors to unsanitary conditions? Which city dwellers suffered the most from those conditions? What does Riis regard as the chief obstacles to good health and good morals in the slums? Identify key points of life in the city for many Americans.
Social Gospel Movement • Protestant movement to help the poor • Josiah Strong- one of the founders • Prioritized SOCIAL salvation over INDIVIDUAL salvation • Establishment of • The Salvation Army • YMCA and YWCA • Help with the physical, mental and spiritual well-being of men and women
Settlement Houses Jane Addams Hull House, Chicago
Originally opened in 1893 by Lillian Ward, later was operated by many influential women including suffragette Florence Kelley. Henry Street Settlement in NYC
Purpose of settlement houses Offered a variety of services to women and children (primarily) Daycares and kindergartens Secretarial courses Civic clubs English classes Playgroups Religious organizations “neighborhood centers” **located where most needed**