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I. Bleeding Kansas A. Extremists

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  1. T11/23/10; M 11/30/09;W 12/3/08; W 12/12/07; W12/6/06; Th 12/8/05; F 12/17/04H-F12/1-2/11Sectionalism Heats Up: Bleeding Kansas & Buchanan’s Term(Ch. 14.3; pp. 393-403)

  2. I. Bleeding KansasA. Extremists • MO move w/ guns • “Border Ruffians” • North move w/ “Beecher’s Bibles” • New England Emigrant Aid Co. • 2K move from NE • Midwesterners move – Why? • anti-slavery for economic reasons (not abolitionists)

  3. A. Extremists (cont.) • Sack of Lawrence • no deaths, but destroyed property (proslavery) • Pottawattomie Massacre • 5 murdered – John Brown(antislavery)

  4. B. Two Governments (cont.) • Lecompton Const. – proslavery – 1856 • Pierce initially backed Lecompton • decision delayed until after Election of 1856 • later accepted by Buchanan b/c of free soil boycott • Topeka Const. – antislavery – 1855 • which gov’t is legitimate?

  5. II. Brooks Attack on Sumner • Charles Sumner(R-MA) “Crimes Against KN” • denounces proslavery violence • mocksAndrew Butler(SC) – old, drooling • Rep. Preston Brooks(SC) attacks Sumner w/ cane • resigns but re-elected • new canes sent [“hit him again”] • Sumner out for 3-1/2 years– re-elected in absentia • symbolic of growing conflict • greater split along sectional lines

  6. III. Ostend Manifesto (Oct. 1854) • attempt to purchase Cuba by U.S. diplomats • sugar plantations – lots of slaves • popular in S • leaked – discredited Pierce • appeared to be growing slaveocracy • [How to prevent sectionalism?] • [need leaders/laws to lessen sectional tensions]

  7. IV. Election of 1856 • Dems – Buchanan (PA) - little opinion on slavery • Reps – Frémont – “Free speech, free press… Frémont” • American (K-N) – Fillmore • 2 races – Dem vs. K-N in S. - Dem vs. Rep in N. • Impact: 1. S might secede if Reps win 2. Dems need national (non-regional) candidates 3. Reps legitimate party

  8. V. Dred Scott Decision • slave sues for freedom • Taney: cannot sue, not a citizen • no blacks were citizens (even free blacks) • Slaves = property – can take anywhere • Mo. Compromise – unconst. • Congress cannot ban slavery – Who can? • only states – not territories, not Congress • b/c 5th Amend protects property • rejected pop. sov. • N – growing slaveocracy

  9. VII. Lincoln-Douglas Debates • US Senate (IL) – 1858 • series of 7 debates – national press • Lincoln - “House Divided” • Douglas & S: Lincoln as abolitionist • free soil, not abolitionist • Freeport Doctrine– traps Douglas • pop. sov. or Dred Scott? • Douglas – pop. sov. • S. will not vote for Douglas

  10. VIII. Harper’s Ferry- 1859 • federal arsenal • John Brown – abol. → slave revolt • huge failure • trial, death → martyr to abol. • split N. – free soilers distance from JB • renounce violence • S. – JB symbol of abol. & ALL of N • threaten secession, if antislavery Pres.

  11. IX. Election of 1860A. Candidates • Lincoln (Rep. – IL) • slavery: Free Soil in West, protect slavery in S • economic: protective tariff; internal improvements; homestead (imm.) • Douglas (Dem – IL) • pop. sov. • John Breckenridge (Dem – KY) • protect & spread slavery; Dred Scott • John Bell (Const Union – TN) • keep country together

  12. B. Results • 2 elections: • 1. Lincoln vs. Douglas in N • 2. Breckenridge vs. Bell in S • What happens when split in party? • Lincoln wins • [analogy to Hillary/Obama split in 2008] • [McCain would win – legitimate? ] • [Similar response by S in 1860]

  13. C. Impact • SC & 6 Deep S secede • form CSA – Montgomery, AL • Jefferson Davis – Pres. • 2 Q’s: 1. Lincoln’s Response 2. Upper South • Crittenden Amendment • rejected by Lincoln (36-30 line) • Lincoln would protect slavery in S

  14. D. Civil War • Ft. Sumter • SC attacks – April 1861 • Civil War begins • Lincoln raises troops – 75K • Upper S secedes (VA, NC, TN, AR)