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  1. Introduction 9/21/10 Scientific Reading and Writing in English

  2. Introduction. The introduction should supply sufficient background information to allow the reader to understand and evaluate the results of the present study without referring to previous publications on the topic. The introduction should also provide the hypothesis that was addressed or the rationale for the present study. Choose references carefully to provide the most salient background rather than an exhaustive review of the topic.

  3. The “Introduction” addresses why you did it, how you did it, and what did you get (conclusion). Convince your reader that your work is important.

  4. Content of “Introduction” (1) The nature and scope of the problem investigated (2) Reviews of the related literature to orient the reader (3) The method or the reason for the choice of a particular method (4) Principal results (5) Principal conclusion(s) (Please also pay attention to followings when you read papers) Reference citation (Where and what kind?) The length of “Introduction”. Abbreviations (which one should you do?)

  5. The first paragraph is important for catching the attention of the reader and for convincing them the significance of the questions that you address in the paper. The second paragraph is to give enough background to introduce the problem, but not overwhelming. Describe what gaps your paper fills

  6. The last paragraph of the Introduction should be a short summary of what you set out to do and what you have achieved. e,g. “In this paper, we have studied the …… by using a novel technique in which ……. This approach has allowed us to directly compare A and B, and to distinguish between alternative possibilities for their functions. We conclude that ….. and provide a model to reconcile our findings and those of others”

  7. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infects about 80% of young adults worldwide and induces encephalitis (1–3). HSV-1 encephalitis is the most devastating consequence of all HSV infections and also the most common cause of sporadic, fatal encephalitis, with an incidence of 1 in 200,000 individuals per year (1). The mortality rate of untreated patients is over 70%, and only 2.5% of all patients return to normal neurological function (1). Once the virus enters cells, it interacts with cellular factors to increase viral replication and mortality in infected hosts. Identifying these cellular factors is essential for gaining a better understanding of HSV-1 pathogenesis and should provide cellular targets for developing alternative strategies to prevent host mortality. However, little is known about these cellular factors and their mechanisms.

  8. Early growth response 1 (Egr-1), also known as NGFI-A, Zif268, TIS-8, Z225, and Krox-24, is a zinc finger transcription factor constitutively expressed, particularly in neural tissues (4–7), and can also be induced upon stress (8–12). It is shown to regulate many cellular activities, such as growth, proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and development (6, 7), but its deficiency does not result in obvious defects except that female mice lacking Egr-1 are infertile (5, 7, 13). Several viruses and viral proteins have been shown to induce Egr-1 expression (9–12, 14), and Egr-1 is known to regulate several viral genes (14–16), including the gene-encoding latency-associated transcripts (LATs) of HSV-1 (17).

  9. However, the functions of Egr-1 in viral replication and disease progression remain unclear. In the search for cellular factors interacting with HSV-1 to regulate viral infection, we found that transcription factor Egr-1 was induced after infection. Our results showed that Egr-1 increased viral replication in infected cells and mouse tissues and mortality in infected mice. Furthermore, knockdown of Egr-1 expression reduced the mortality of infected mice by decreasing viral loads in tissues.

  10. Homework: • Practice to write your own “Introduction”