Perception • Understanding & interpreting info. from a stimulus • Ex. The Stroop Effect
Gestalt Psychology • Tendency to integrate pieces of info into wholes • See patterns & groupings, not small, individual pieces • “The whole is greater than the sum of the parts”
Gestalt Psychology • Answers the questions: • What is it? (Figure-ground relationship) • How far away is it? (Depth Perception) • Where is it going? (Perceptual Constancies) • Trying reading the next slide.
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Gestalt Psychology • Figure-Ground Perception • Perception of figures against a background • Organize your visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground) • Once you determine the figure from the ground you organize the figure into a meaningful form.
Gestalt Psychology • Laws Of Grouping: • Similarity – Group objects together that are similar. • Proximity – Group nearby objects together. • Continuity – Perceive straight or curvy lines as continuous,flowing patterns. • Closure – Perceive a complete or whole figure even when there are gaps. • CommonFate – Objects moving in the same direction belong together.
Movement & Motion • Perception Of Motion – To sense movement, humans need to see an object change its position relative to other objects • Ex. Cars at a traffic light • Stroboscopic Motion – Illusion of movement is produced by showing the rapid progression of images or objects that are not moving • Flip books & movies
Perceptual Set • Perceive something based on prior perceptual experiences • Ex. Interpretation of ambiguous stimulus • Face on Mars • UFOs • Loch Ness Monsters • Bigfoot
Bell Ringer For 11/15/2011 • According To Gestalt Psychology humans have a tendency to ______ ______ _______ _______ into _________.
Bell Ringer For 11/15/2011 • Tendency to integrate pieces of information into a whole.
Perceptual Constancies • 4 Types: • Size Constancy – An object is the same size no matter how far away it is or if its angle changes • Color Constancy – Objects keep their color though the light may change the appearance • Brightness Constancy – Object is equally bright though light changes • Shape Constancy – An object has only one shape no matter what angle you view it from
Optical Illusions • The brain’s use of perceptual constancies tricks our eyes through visual (optical) illusions
Optical Illusions • Do you see the gray dots?
Optical Illusions • Impossible Figures
Optical Illusions • Muller-Lyer Illusion
Optical Illusions • Ponzo Illusion • Misapplying size constancy • Which box has the smaller man?
Optical Illusions • Are the lines below straight or are they curved?
Depth Perception • Ability to see objects in 3 dimensions • Images that strike the retina are two dimensional • Use perceptual cues to determine distance & depth
Perceptual Cues • Interposition – If something is blocking our view, we perceive it as closer
Perceptual Cues • Relative Size – If we know that two objects are similar in size, the one that looks smaller is farther away (size constancy)
Perceptual Constancies • Relative Height – Things higherin our field of vision look farther away
Perceptual Cues • Linear Perspective – Parallel lines seem to converge with distance • http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/channel/brain-games/
Perceptual Cues • Relative Brightness – Bright objects appear closer than dimmer objects
Perceptual Cues • Aerial Perspective – Clearer objects seem closer • Atmospheric conditions (haze & dust) affect vision