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China, 1921-Present. World History Libertyville High School. Foundation of Party. Formed in 1921 with help from Soviet Union Part of Soviet effort to make communist revolution international Eventually, Soviets and Chinese communists split in their beliefs, ideologies.

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china 1921 present

China, 1921-Present

World History

Libertyville High School

foundation of party
Foundation of Party
  • Formed in 1921 with help from Soviet Union
  • Part of Soviet effort to make communist revolution international
  • Eventually, Soviets and Chinese communists split in their beliefs, ideologies
chinese civil war 1927 49
Chinese Civil War, 1927-49
  • Chinese Nationalists (KMT), under Chiang Kai-Shek vs. Chinese Communists, under Mao Tse-Tung
  • KMT supported by West, Communists by Soviets
  • KMT winning in 1920s, 1930s
chinese civil war
Chinese Civil War
  • “The Long March” (1934-35)
    • Series of Communist retreats covering 8000 miles in 370 days
    • During March, Mao reorganized Party, setting self as leader
    • Reached safety in mountains near Soviet border
japanese invasion 1937 45
Japanese Invasion, 1937-45
  • Civil war interrupted by Japanese invasion, in 1937
    • United both sides against Japanese
  • KMT retreated to mountains
    • Saved strength, but morale and prestige hurt
  • Communists fought as guerillas vs. Japanese
    • Won over peasants
end of civil war
End of Civil War
  • Civil war resumed after Japanese defeated
  • Communists have smaller army, BUT…
    • Better soldiers
    • Peasants on their side
  • KMT demoralized, lost war
    • Retreated to Taiwan, an offshore island
  • Even today, Communist China claims Taiwan as breakaway province
the great leap forward 1958 61
“The Great Leap Forward” (1958-61)
  • Forced collectivization of agricultural sector (1949-58)
    • Peasants forced into communes
    • Private ownership of land eliminated
    • Done prior to industrialization, so peasants not mechanized
  • Industrialization at local level (1958-61)
    • “Backyard” furnaces for steel production (melt down old products to make steel - impossible)
    • Quietly abandoned in 1960s
the great leap forward 1958 611
“The Great Leap Forward” (1958-61)
  • Social Changes, 1949-61
    • Religious worship and opium made illegal
    • Religion replaced by political meetings and propaganda
    • Coercion, violence common
  • Results
    • 20-43 million dead (mainly starvation)
    • Steel production FELL
    • Mao discredited for 5-6 years
the cultural revolution 1966 76
“The Cultural Revolution” (1966-76)
  • Official goal was to enforce socialism by eliminating capitalist, traditional and cultural elements from society
    • Struggle for power between Mao, other communist leaders
    • Became an anti-intellectual purge of Chinese society
  • “Red Guards”
    • Mao’s followers, mainly students
    • Mao ordered them to overthrow the party establishment and replace them with Revolutionary Committees
    • Much violence ensued in power struggle
the cultural revolution
“The Cultural Revolution”
  • Social changes: “Abolishing the Four Olds”
    • Old Customs, Old Culture, Old Habits, Old Ideas
    • Red Guards destroyed old buildings, religious shrines, temples, mosques
    • Education stopped b/c teachers were sent to labor camps
    • Anyone with skills above a peasant was considered in need of “revolutionary re-education”
the cultural revolution1
“The Cultural Revolution”
  • Consequences
    • Generation of illiteracy
    • Establishment of “Cult of Personality” of Mao
    • 36 million Chinese persecuted, “re-educated”
    • 500,000 killed
    • Ended with death of Mao in 1976
    • Today, regarded as a negative event in Chinese history
western economic ideas 1982 present
Western Economic Ideas, 1982-Present
  • With death of Mao in 1976, succession struggle ensued
    • Deng Xiaoping won
  • Created “Special Economic Zones”
    • Few state regulations in areas, to encourage foreign investment
    • Essentially allowed capitalism in these zones
    • Experimented with limited political freedoms as well
western economic ideas 1982 present1
Western Economic Ideas, 1982-Present
  • Results
    • GDP has grown 1000% since 1978
    • China’s GDP is 2nd largest in world, after USA (as of 2011)
    • World’s #1 exporter
    • BUT GDP per capita of $8400 is below international avg.
    • About 51% Chinese live in cities, in 2011
  • SEE CIA World Factbook for more info about China
tiananmen square 4 89 to 6 4 89
Tiananmen Square (4/89 to 6/4/89)
  • Hundreds of thousands of college students & democratic reformers gathered in Beijing
  • Protests centered on…
    • Human rights violations
    • Lack of freedom in China
    • Demands for political liberalization
tiananmen square
Tiananmen Square
  • Government’s response
    • Attempted to rally support of people to its side (failed)
    • Next came threats against protesters
    • Purge within ruling committee
      • Leaders sympathetic to protesters ousted
    • Troops sent in to crush protests
  • Nationwide crackdown on liberalization followed
challenges facing china
Challenges Facing China
  • Demographics
    • From 1964-1982, population increased from 694 to 1,008 million
  • “One Child Policy” implemented in 1979
    • About 36% of pop. subject to strict 1 child policy (urban)
    • About 53% allowed 2nd child if 1st is a girl
    • About 10% allowed 2 kids
    • Tibetans, Hong Kong have no limits
challenges demographics
Challenges - Demographics
  • Consequences
    • From 1979 to 2011, about 400 million births prevented
    • “Prevention” includes use of contraceptives, enforced abortion, female infanticide, offering girls for adoption
    • Too many Chinese males (117:100 in 2000)
    • Too few young Chinese to support aging population