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Vocabulary Review. List 4. altruism. Part of Speech : NOUN Meaning : unselfishness; humanity ; philanthropy Usage Should we assume that people are motivated by altruism or self-interest? Her altruism inspired others to act benevolently.

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altruism
altruism

Part of Speech: NOUN

Meaning: unselfishness;

humanity; philanthropy

Usage

  • Should we assume that

people are motivated by altruism or self-interest?

  • Her altruism inspired others to act benevolently.
  • Habitat for Humanity thrives on the altruism of its volunteers.
assiduous
assiduous

Part of Speech: ADJECTIVE

Meaning: diligent; persevering;

industrious

Usage

  • Tom was known as an

assiduous researcher, often

working in the lab for twelve to fifteen-hour stretches.

  • The reporter engaged in assiduous editing, all in an effort to make the piece as polished as possible.
  • Tammy was an assiduous student who rarely took time out of her day to engage in anything non-academic.
cacophony
cacophony

Part of Speech: NOUN

Meaning: disharmony; discord;

harshness

Usage

  • The cacophony of dozens of

car horns drove me to madness.

  • Near the end of the parade, and no doubt a result of poor planning, we were tortured with the cacophony of a jazz band, bag pipers, and a drum corps.
  • The sounds of barking dogs and sirens added to the cacophony on the streets.
ephemeral
ephemeral

Part of Speech: ADJECTIVE

Meaning: short-lived; fleeting;

momentary

Usage

  • New words are constantly

being coined; some will prove

ephemeralwhile others are here to stay.

  • Her passion for hip-hop proved ephemeral, as evidenced by the grunge-style of dress she adopted, as well as her new affinity for the likes of Nirvana and Alice in Chains.
  • Jim talked a big game about sticking up to the bullies, but when confronted by them his confidence was lacking, his brashness ephemeral.
innocuous
innocuous

Part of Speech: ADJECTIVE

Meaning: inoffensive;

harmless; mild

Usage

  • The banter between the

boys was generally innocuous,

and so neither was severely

reprimanded.

  • At any moment, a seemingly innocuousdecision can explode in their faces.
  • Chemical waste disposal falls under environmental protection legislation, so appropriate steps must be taken to render waste innocuous before disposal.
importune
importune

Part of Speech: VERB

Meaning: to ask urgently

and repeatedly; to pester;

to persist

Usage

  • The life of a telemarketer,

someone charged with

importuningcustomers to empty their pockets, must be stressful.

  • For hours, the boy importuned his mother to buy him the video game, but she never caved.
  • The teacher importuned his students to submit their permission slips by the deadline, for their failure to do so would result in their inability to go on the field trip.
obviate
obviate

Part of Speech: VERB

Meaning: to anticipate

and prevent or eliminate

(difficulties,

disadvantages, etc.) by

effective measures

Usage

  • This strategy does not obviate the need for heads of school to take steps to address such matters at a school level.
  • Increased road access may also obviate the need for airdrops.
  • They may answer some of your questions or even obviate the need for a consultancy visit.
pernicious
pernicious

Part of Speech: ADJECTIVE

Meaning: causing great

harm or ruin; injurious;

deadly

Usage

  • Pernicious weed has

spread all through the bed.

  • Pernicious myths have started to become a little too popular.
  • The negative impact upon young minority students may be especially pernicious.
vacillate
vacillate

Part of Speech: VERB

Meaning: to waver in

mind or opinion; to be

indecisive or irresolute

Usage

  • She frequently

vacillates back and forth

from a positive perspective

to a grim outlook.

  • The senator vacillatedinstead of going on the offensive, prompting the critics to attack him in the papers.
  • The little girl vacillated for minutes at the ice cream stand, fearful of selecting something she wouldn’t like.
vacuity
vacuity

Part of Speech: NOUN

Meaning: emptiness;

absence of thought,

intelligence or something

else specified

Usage

  • Looking at the issues in this way exposes the essential vacuity of the claim.
  • Years of verbal abuse are likely the cause of her emotional vacuity.
  • The vacuity of his responses was no doubt precipitated by marathon workdays and sleep deprivation.