Acrylamide: Mechanism of Formation in Heated Foods. David Zyzak, Ph.D. Procter & Gamble Snacks and Beverage Analytical and Microbiology Cincinnati, Ohio. ACRYLAMIDE SHOCK Press Release April 24, 2002.
David Zyzak, Ph.D.
Procter & Gamble
Snacks and Beverage Analytical and Microbiology
Stockholm University/Swedish NFA revealed acrylamide presence in variety of cooked foods.
Toasted English Muffin, 5 min
Baby Food Potatoes
Hearty Rye Crispbread
Baked Potato Chips
Cooked Taco Shell
Blue Potato Chips
Kettle Potato Chips
Sample Survey Results
Variety of ingredients
Potato Starch + Water
Approximately 50% of amino acids are in the free state
(not incorporated into protein).
Asparagine is roughly half of the free amino acid content.
Asparagine occurring as component of protein does not have an accessible primary amine group for Schiff base formation, and would not be expected to participate in the production of acrylamide. Blocking the amine group in asparagine, N-acetyl asparagine, is an effective analogue to test.
Result: No acrylamide formation observed
Asparagine at 1.25%
Other Carbonyl Sources Which Produce Acrylamide
All of these carbonyl sources produce significant acrylamide in the model system with asparagine.
Use of Isotopes to Understand the Mechanism of Acrylamide Formation from the Reaction of Asparagine and Dextrose
97+ % of Total Acrylamide Response
m/z 72 Unlabeled Acrylamide
Washed Russet Burbank Potatoes
Boil for 1 hour
Blend flesh 1:3 with distilled water
45 min @ RT
Microwave @ 2 min intervals for total of 10 min.
Highly Cooked to Maximize Acrylamide Formation
(both control and asparaginase-treated products were dry and brown)
1Calculated as (control – asparaginase treated)/control x 100.
- Sucrose hydrolysis?