An orientation about Vehicle Inspection Anil Chhikara MLO Transport Department
Contents • Transport Scenario of Delhi • Vehicle Inspection history and achievments • Signification of vehicle tests
Typical progress of Delhi Transport • Delhi population increase is three folds but the vehicle increase is about 17.5 times during the same period . • Delhi average traffic speed is about 16kms/hr , the lowest in the country and in central Delhi it is even less than 10 kms/hr at peak hrs . • Delhi has 21% area coverage for roads, best in India, better than any global city ,but congestion is worst in the country . • 90% of the road space is occupied by 35% of the total travelers of cars and two wheelers . • The road length per 1000 vehicles reduced from 12 kms to six kms from 1990 to 2006 . • Road expansion has reduced from 71% to 3% since last four decades . • It is estimated that daily 2 hrs delay is experienced by individuals and loss of fuel waste due to congestion and idling is around Rs 20,000 millions per annum .
Modal split of a typical city transport The chart shows decline of bus passenger ridership and potential to shift passengers to AR and taxies
Distance travel matrix source IIT Delhi 85 % people have 10 kms or less travel distance , Short distance transport is left unattended.
Vehicle Inspection chronicle • Vehicle inspection every year took place since 1914 in Delhi with Delhi Police for pvt. and transport vehicles. • MVI was called as Patrol Inspector who was from traffic police who was responsible to inspect the vehicles. • Since 1940 the DMVR was published where the only Transport vehicle was mandated to be checked every six months . • Prior to 1955 the Motor Vehicle Act and Railway Act was dealt jointly . After 1955 full fledged Transport department started functioning . • The provision of Fitness certifications and cancellation of fitness started .
Vehicle Fitness Regime in Delhi • The vehicle fitness inspection was carried out twice in year by Board of Inspector which included one traffic inspector and one MVI . • The vehicle inspection was continued at Yamuna Bank and was carried out very specifically , stringently but visually . Vehicle owner fear was much as of today in vehicle maintenance . • In 1987 the pollution checking of vehicle was started of all vehicles. • In 1991 the vehicle inspection unit was established where the emission check and brake test were carried out . The brakes dynamometers got buried in concrete by 1997. No maintenance provisions were made during that time .
In 1996 MORTH granted one test lane , was not used at all and got obscured into concrete . Also no maintenance program was provisioned and the equipment testing were non starter . • In 2005 two test lanes and in 2007 one more test lanes was installed where the passenger vehicles were tested . The department had to bear a big cost of repairs and delays in repairs. • However the testing was conducted under stringent control parameters resulting up scaling of quality of vehicles particularly in brakes , emission , cat converter, silencer , emergency hand brakes , speed governors , body finishing quality , seating comfort , headlamp , tail lamp functioning , steering play , noise reduction, wipers, CNG safety , overall cleanness , power transmission efficiency etc. • The passenger vehicles aesthetics were so improved to the new buses finish and there was a drop of fatal accidents by 20% in 2006~2008. • The vehicle owner was to fill the check sheet after his self evaluation as pre inspection as the failure rate initially was 70% reduced to 20% . • The vehicle operator was informed about the performance of his vehicle and necessary prior information were made available to him before the vehicle was produced for inspection.
The automated test lane inspection procedure was carried out for the first time in India and was appreciated by media as well national wide transport agencies. • The transparency in testing was maintained and customer satisfaction level was very high . People encouragement was also seen that vehicle owner wanted the tests be conducted voluntarily. • The cost of tyre wear , fuel saving due to controlled emission , reduction of fear of accidents due to correction of steering play/ joint play / sideslip , overall brake performance
The number of fatalities was declined by 20% by passenger vehicles during 2007-8. • The ratio of inspectors and vehicles was 1/20,000 and now it is 1/1,00,000 also inspector population was 1/80,000 which is now 1/1,50,000. This ratio is the lowest in the country on other side the work pressure is increasing .
Significance of Inspection and Maintenance /Certification System
I&M and I&C • There is a practice worldwide that in use vehicles are maintained through the machines performance results. This vehicle maintenance regime is called as Inspection and Maintenance (I&M) system and is organized by the dealers workshops of the automotive manufacturers. • The performance rating of vehicle when measured through the set of machines to conform the statutory provisions and issuance of roadworthiness certificates is called Inspection and Certification (I&C) system.
I&M system • Under this system test equipments are installed in a lane and the vehicle testing is done sequentially and the test report is prepared through software. The database of the vehicle is stored in the computer hardware . This data can be transmitted on line along with the procedure can be surveyed on web support . The practice is made that the tests be accomplished without human intervention.
I&C system • When legislation is made that the certificate of road worthiness is granted upon the basis of the test reports is called the Inspection and Certification system . The test equipments for I&M and I&C can installed be at one place or other , depends upon the authorities . • In general at the stations array of machines perform the various test of the vehicles . Visual inspection observations are also recorded in computers and the drivers need to be trained to synchronize the operations with remote controls or manual operations .
Various test at glance • Pre Inspection of vehicles • Vehicle data entry • Emission test . • Noise test • Side slip • Weight measurement of axles • Brake testers • Speed rollers test and speed governor test • Joint play testers • Head lamp testers • Suspension testers
This is an unloaded test Exhaust Emissions Test mode, using a certified gas analyzer, as per Indian standard TAP 115 / 116 requirements, specifically for spark ignition vehicles. This test is similar to the Pollution Under Control (PUC) test, currently used inIndia. HC and CO are measured and if they are below theprescribed limits for that vehicle, the vehicle shall be assigned a passing result,otherwise a Fail will be recorded. In this program , as a fraud protection measure, a CO2 and O2 is be incorporated in the test procedure . Exhaust Emissions Test Individual Vehicle Tests
In addition, Air – Fuel ratio the LAMBDA (λ) (for CNG/LPG/Gasoline), requiring an O2 measurement. The emissions analyzers includes the capability to measure CO, HC, CO2, O2, and engine RPM to the range and accuracy. This enhanced measurement requires engine to run at normal idle and high idle so the behavior of emission can be tested at variable speeds. This prevents also tempering of the tests by non recording of the emission measurement at tailpipe leakage. In anticipation of future requirements the emissions analyzer shall have the capabilities for addition of Nitric Oxide (NO) measurement and dynamometer interface.
Diesel Test • This is an unloaded test mode using the Pollution Under Control (PUC) test currently used to test diesel vehicles. This test use the PUC procedure and specified smokemeter (certified as per Indian requirement) (TAP Document); however, the test equipment of incorporates a different test sequence, such as the SAE J1667, the EU snap acceleration tests .The free accelerations at the maximum rpm ( 25% _+), engine temperature above 60 ° C the smoke density is measured . In case of measurement at load , the dynamometers are also installed to check the behavior of smoke at load conditions.
Sideslip Test • The equipment shall measure the toe, either in or out, of a vehicle as it drives across the plate(s). The measurement is a linear displacement perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. Excessive toe indicates out of alignment with respect to the vehicles manufacturer’s specification, which results in excessive tire scrub and/or wear, and constitutes a failure.
Weight Measurement • This measurement, used for vehicle classification and/or brake and suspension test use, can be done either with a separate scale, or integrated with another piece of equipment, such as the suspension and brake tester. Weight is measured per wheel and appropriately summed to achieve the axle weights and total vehicle weight. The load sensors are used to convert the weight to digital form .
Suspension Test • The suspension test shall use the appropriate parameters, such as vehicle weight, and dynamic shock/strut damping measurements during the test to determine whetherthe vehicle suspension system is road worthy. The actuator plates vibrates the axles and damping forces are measured in %. The test holds good in LMV passenger cars .
Brake Test The brake test shall use a roller type brake tester. The performance of the brake testers shall conform to established standards such as EU standards. The brake test shall measure braking force of wheels individually as well as the parking brake via a set of load cells. Multiple comparisons of measured forces shall be performed to determine pass/fail results for each of the parameters.
Wheel and Tire Initial Resistance / Vehicle Coasting Force This test shall check the vehicle’s wheels for abnormally high rotational force prior to testing braking forces. A high rotational force can be an indication of suspension misalignment, wheel bearing failure, or low tire pressure (among other concerns), and constitutes a failure.
Magnitude Braking Force After the initial resistance check, the braking force shall be measured at each wheel to check the amount of braking force available in Newtons. A set amount of brake force is available per unit of weight of the vehicle; if not, the magnitude brake force is considered a failure for that wheel. The system shall be capable of providing a display of the brake force as a visual reference for manual analysis.
Left-to-Right Brake Force Difference Using the previously measured brake forces, the difference from left to right braking forces shall be calculated for each axle. An abnormally high number indicates steering wheel “pull” when the brakes are applied which, above a certain value, is a safety concern and considered a failure.
Warped Rotor and/or Drum Out-of-Roundness From the previously measured brake forces, an abnormally high variance in the amplitude shall indicate a drum or rotor that is out-of round or warped, and classified as a failure. It shall be possible to display and print a plot of the brake force as a visual reference and manual diagnosis.
Brake system proportioning From the previously measured brake forces, the difference in measured brake forces on each axle shall be compared to ensure that the vehicle braking proportioning system is working properly and anomalies displayed and printed as a failure or advisory.
Parking Brake This is a repeat of magnitude braking force measurement only using the parking brake. The system shall be capable of providing a plot of the brake force as a visual reference for manual analysis. In case of pneumatic system the braking performance is checked to enable the vehicle to stop. This brake is also called as fail safe brake as well as emergency brake.
Headlight test The headlight test shall measure the intensity and vertical and horizontal alignment of the headlamps. To enhance throughput, it is preferred that the test shall be automatic to the extent that once the test is initiated the headlight system shall automatically position itself using appropriate sensors and motors. Low levels of intensity, deviations of aim angles, and headlamp height outside defined standards shall constitute a failure.
Noise Test The noise test shall use a device that measures the decibel (dB) level of the vehicles sound to classify a vehicle’s contribution to noise pollution. Excessive noise measurement above a predetermined threshold can be indicative of a vehicle malfunction (such as a hole in the exhaust ) and constitutes a failure. The passerby noise as well as higher noise indicates the malfunctioning of engine.
Speedometer Test The speedometer test shall use a device that accurately measures the vehicle wheel speed while the vehicle speed is maintained constant. During this test, the operator enters the speed from the vehicle speedometer and the constant speed indicated by the speedometer tester is compared to the vehicle speedometer displayed speed entered by the vehicle operator. A pass/fail is determined based on the comparison to established acceptance limits. The speed governor speed characteristics are also captured in the database to check speed governor performance at simulated conditions .
Joint Play Test • Joint play is a visual check requiring a joint play device that forces movement of the structures while allowing the inspector to inspect the steering and suspension mechanisms. The results of the visual inspection shall be entered by the inspector manually at the appropriate data entry terminal. The results will then be incorporated into the VTR ( Vehicle Test Report ).
Visual Checks Contd. The pass/fail results of the visual inspection shall be entered by the inspector at the appropriate data entry terminal and incorporated into the VTR. The menu for the visual inspection items shall be displayed at the data entry terminal and the inspector shall have the option of selecting pass or fail at either the data entry terminal or a remote control unit.
Visual Checks Contd • The system configured such that an authorized individual can set the individual criteria to be pass/fail or advisory. The visual inspections may include tire tread depth measurement, the current Indian CNG and LPG inspection procedure and gas leak detection. It is desirable, to interface these measurement devices into the computer system. The visual aesthetics , permit conditions , wipers, turn signals , oil leakage , tail pipe, wheel nut , body , seats , paintings , windows , vibrations are entered in the database.
Future Capabilities Without jeopardizing the throughput performance and reliability, the test system hardware and software architecture should be flexible and expandable to enable easy future field addition of new tests. These could include new petrol and diesel loaded mode emissions tests, automated tire tread depth measurement, enhanced brake tests, steering wheel play , clutch slippage , and on-board diagnostic (OBD I, II ) checks etc.
Thanking You Anil Chhikara