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UAV Research International. “Providing integrated consultation to MAV project engineers at Eglin AFB” Chris McGrath Neil Graham Alex von Oetinger John Dascomb Sponsor : Dr. Gregg Abate April 6, 2006. Overview. Problem Statement Design Specifications Design Solution

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uav research international

UAV Research International

“Providing integrated consultation to MAV project engineers at Eglin AFB”

Chris McGrath

Neil Graham

Alex von Oetinger

John Dascomb

Sponsor :

Dr. Gregg Abate

April 6, 2006

overview
Overview
  • Problem Statement
  • Design Specifications
  • Design Solution
  • Scale Model Design/Fabrication
  • Testing
problem statement
Problem Statement
  • To design a means of characterizing MAV handling during flight
  • Test must be repeatable
  • Data must be collected to characterize the MAV
project specifications
Project Specifications
  • Weight  100 – 200 grams (g)
  • Flight Speed  0 – 25 meters per second (m/s)
  • Exterior Material  Carbon Fiber Composite
  • Wing Tip Length  15 – 30 centimeters (cm)
  • MAV Flight Control  Both 2 and 3 axis
  • Type of Thrust  Pusher, Puller, None
design selection free flight wind tunnel
Design Selection:Free Flight Wind Tunnel
  • The free flight wind tunnel has been successfully created before
  • Design is a conventional wind tunnel with unobstructed test section
  • Relative velocity of MAV to the ground is zero
wind tunnel design
Wind Tunnel Design
  • In wind tunnel design Three properties are most important to consider:
    • Tunnel geometry
    • Flow quality
    • Fan Selection
wind tunnel geometry test section dimensions
Wind Tunnel Geometry:Test section Dimensions
  • For the minimum analysis of the flight, the MAV needs to move laterally or vertically twice its wingspan
  • Minimum cross section for 12” wingspan is 4.5 ft x 4.5 ft
  • Allow ten feet for longitudinal motion
wind tunnel geometry 1 st diffuser
Wind Tunnel Geometry:1st Diffuser
  • Expands the ducting from area of test section to the area of the fan
  • Diffuser angle < 5° for laminar flow
wind tunnel design turns 1 and 2
Wind Tunnel Design:Turns 1 and 2
  • Corner Vanes assist flow around the 4 90 degree turns
  • Corner Vanes improve efficiency by decreasing pressure loss
  • Even with vanes 61% of all pressure loss occurs at the 1st two turns
wind tunnel design fan selection
Wind Tunnel Design:Fan Selection
  • Fan selection based on volume flow rate and static pressure loss in tunnel
  • Volume flow rate at maximum of 25 m/s is 100000 CFM
  • Total pressure loss in tunnel = 600 Pa
wind tunnel design fan selection1
Wind Tunnel Design:Fan Selection
  • Howden Buffalo 54-26 series fan
  • Fan has a 54 in diameter, and a 125 HP motor
wind tunnel design flow quality
Wind Tunnel Design:Flow Quality
  • Motor housing
  • Anti-swirl vanes
wind tunnel geometry 2 nd diffuser turns 3 and 4
Wind Tunnel Geometry:2nd Diffuser, Turns 3 and 4
  • Diffuser increases area final area ratio of 6
  • Final area ratio is most important factor in tunnel
  • Turning vanes keep flow as laminar as possible
wind tunnel design flow quality1
Wind Tunnel Design:Flow Quality
  • Honeycombs - remove lateral components of turbulence
  • 3 Screens – remove axial components of turbulence
wind tunnel geometry contraction cone
Wind Tunnel Geometry:Contraction Cone
  • Contraction cone quickly increases flow velocity
  • When condensing, flow will not separate like diffuser
instrumentation
Instrumentation
  • On-Board Measurement
  • Flow Quality Measurement
  • Traversing System
  • Data Collection Software
  • Data Acquisition System
on board measurement
On-Board Measurement
  • Kestrel Autopilot
    • 16.65 grams (2” x 1.37” x .47”)
    • Three-axis rate gyros
    • Accelerometers
    • Air pressure sensors
data collection software
Data Collection Software
  • Virtual Cockpit
  • Labview
scale model
Scale Model
  • Too expensive to build the designed tunnel
  • Built a 1/12 scale model
  • Physically test flow quality of full scale design to determine if free flight is feasible
scale effects
Scale Effects
  • Scale model Reynolds number 1/12 that of full scale model
  • Use hot-wire Anemometer to measure velocity fluctuation though test section
  • Velocity is not dependent on Reynolds number, scaling effects can be ignored for our tests
contraction cone1
Contraction Cone

Total Elapsed Time:

2 Hours

20 Hours

contraction cone2
Contraction Cone

Total Elapsed Time: 41 Hours

model results
Model Results
  • Manufacturing Complete
  • Testing
    • Initial correction of flow through turning vanes
    • Inconclusive analysis of tunnel due to lack of testing
  • Potential Testing
    • Fine tune internal geometry
    • Correction of all Turning vanes
    • Measuring Pressure fluctuations through test section
problems encountered
Problems Encountered
  • Wait time on ordered parts
      • MSC acrylic sheets
      • McMaster-Carr fan order
  • Fabrication of contraction cone
  • Testing Time Constraints