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STEM Project Design Science Technology Engineering and Math

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  1. STEM Project DesignScience Technology Engineering and Math STEM Service-Learning Summer institute Sacramento State University August 5-7, 2009

  2. Many Definitions of Design • Design as art • Design as problem solving • Design activity as applying scientific and other organized knowledge to practical tasks • Design as a social process in which individual worlds interact and parameters are negotiated Source: Dr. Robin Adams ENE 696G course notes

  3. Design Process Design is done by many disciplines

  4. Multiple Valid Solutions Examples: Cell Phones Computers

  5. STEM Balance Service-learning is a balance of the learning of design and the service we contribute to the communities through completed designs and support Service To our partners, meeting needs in the community Learning Becoming good designers, professionals and active learners Complimentary goals that enhance each other

  6. Design Process and Project Mgmt. • Many models and tools • Design Process • Mechanical Engineering • Ullman’s - 6 steps • Service Learning • PARDE Model – key elements • Different Companies use different models • They all use some process • Avoid “hobbyist approach” and inefficient project progress • Design needs to combine STEM and Service-Learning

  7. EPICS* Design Process Six Phases • Problem Identification • Specification Development • Conceptual Design • Detailed Design • Production • Service/Maintenance • Redesign or retirement *EPICS High–Engineering Projects in Community Service-Learning, Purdue University

  8. Problem Identification Specification Development Redesign Retirement Conceptual Design Detailed Design Service Maintenance Production The EPICS Design Cycle Disposal

  9. Problem Identification • Tasks • Identify problem • Determine project objectives • Determine motivation for project • Identify outcomes or deliverables • Determine duration of the project • Identify community partner contact • Identify stakeholders • Deliverables • Project Charter

  10. Specification Development • Tasks • Complete users and beneficiaries analysis • Define the customer requirements • Evaluate design constraints • Develop engineering specifications • Compare to benchmark products (prior designs) • Determine design targets • Deliverables • Project Specification Document

  11. Conceptual Design • Tasks • Complete Functional Decomposition of project • Complete Decision Matrix of requirements • Define how users will interact with project • Analyze/evaluate potential solutions • Choose best solution • Deliverables • Project Conceptual Design Report

  12. Detailed Design • Tasks • Complete top down specification/ bottom-up implementation (freeze interfaces) • Analysis/evaluation of project, sub-modules and/or components • Prototyping/proof-of-concept of project, sub-modules and/or components • Field test prototype/get feedback from users • Complete DFMEA* analysis of project • Bill of materials • Determine what user training is necessary • Deliverables • Project Detailed Design Report • Prototype version of project *DFMEA -Design for Failure Mode and Effect Analysis

  13. Production • Tasks • Complete production version of the project • Complete user manuals/training material • Complete delivery review • Deliverables • Delivered project • Project Delivery Report • Delivery checklist • User manuals

  14. Service/Maintenance • Tasks • Evaluate performance of fielded project • Determine what resources are necessary to support and maintain the project • Deliverables • Fielded Project Report • Redesign or Retirement Decisions

  15. Problem Identification Specification Development Redesign Retirement Conceptual Design Detailed Design Service Maintenance Production The EPICS Design Cycle Disposal

  16. Problem Identification Specification Development Redesign Retirement Conceptual Design Detailed Design Service Maintenance Production Iterations in the Design Process Disposal

  17. Problem Identification Specification Development Redesign Retirement Conceptual Design Detailed Design Service Maintenance Production Iterations in the Design Process Disposal

  18. Problem Identification Specification Development Redesign Retirement Conceptual Design Detailed Design Service Maintenance Production Iterations in the Design Process Disposal

  19. Seeking and Selecting Diverge - Seek Possibilities Problem Identification Converge - Narrow Choices Diverge - Seek Possibilities Specification Development Converge - Narrow Choices Each phase of the design process has divergent (creative) components where ideas are sought and a convergent component where options are selected

  20. EPIC Projects and Design • Four Broad Areas • Human Services • Access and Abilities • Environmental • Education Outreach • Design Process • Often Same • Can be STEM rich

  21. Design Tools Group Activities Engineering Specifications

  22. Specifications Development • What does your project partner need? • Don’t rely on what they want, find out what they need. • Understand the problems and issues you are addressing • Who will use the product? • Who will benefit from the product? • Gather Data • Talk to project partner and others impacted • Research

  23. Specifications Development (cont.) • How will the problem be worked? • Criteria for design teams • How will teams be integrated? • Who will use the product? • Transition plans for multiple semesters • Gather input from project partner on specifications • Develop a specifications document • Share and modify specifications

  24. Customer Requirements • Types of customer requirements • Functional performance • Human factors • Physical • Time • Cost • Standards • Test methods • Service and maintenance

  25. Customer Requirements For a cell phone, make a list of ten customer requirements Or For an energy audit of a school, make a list of ten customer requirements

  26. Engineering Specifications • Answer the how question • Quantified • Should be able to measure whether you meet it • Objective quantities • A set of units should be associated with each specification • Forms the basis for your specifications document

  27. Engineering Requirements Starting with the customer requirements for a cell phone or energy audit, make a list of engineering requirements

  28. Defining Requirements • Benchmarks • What is available? • Make comparisons • Why did they use their approach? • Patent searches (avoid infringement) • Are we smarter than everyone else? • Did we miss something?

  29. Design Targets • Set standards to meet with your design • How good is good? • Should be a living document • Don’t compromise on goals • Refine as the design progresses • Make design trade-offs if needed • Communication with project partner • Design decisions

  30. Design Tools Defining the System

  31. Functional Decomposition • Breaking tasks or functions of the system down to the finest level • Create a tree diagram starting at the most general function of your system • What is the purpose of your system • Action word (verb) and object (noun) • Break this function down into simpler subtasks or sub functions • Continue until you are at the most basic functions or tasks • Consider What, not How

  32. Sample FD – Bike Fender

  33. Create a functional decomposition diagram for a cell phone, energy audit or mechanical pencil (won’t be complete)

  34. Generating Ideas - Brainstorming • Pick a facilitator • Define the problem • Small group • Explain the process • Record ideas in a visible way • Everyone’s involved • No evaluating • Eliminate duplicates • Pick three

  35. In the same group – Brainstorm ways to implement one of the functions on your diagram and select the best alternative

  36. Decision Matrix • Table with alternatives • Quantify categories and score alternatives • Use judgment to do reality checks • Leaves documentation of thought process of design • Can be shared in design reviews

  37. Decision Matrix Example: Seeking a Job

  38. Testing for Failures –DFMEA* Steps • Review the design • Brainstorm potential failure modes • List potential effects of failure • Rank Failures • Severity • Occurrence • Detection • Develop action plan • Implement fixes • Revisit potential failure risks *Design for Failure Mode and Effective Analysis

  39. In a group, Identify one project to use as an example for this exercise Describe the project so the whole group understands it

  40. Brainstorm Failures • What could go wrong? • What could break? • Are there systems your design relies upon? • Are there things that could fail over time?

  41. Brainstorm a list of potential failures for the project

  42. Rate Failures

  43. Failure Action Plan • Identify the failure scenario that should be addressed first • Develop an action plan to address the failure scenario

  44. Final Design Tasks • Production • Service and Maintenance • Retirement or Redesign

  45. STEM Project Design Questions/Discussions