Government in Greece Monarchy, Oligarchy, Tyranny, and democracy
Monarchy • Definition: ruling power is in the hands of one person • Etymology: Monos- “Single” Arkhein- “rule” • Question 1: myceneans; People paid taxes to the king, obeyed his laws, and depended on him for defense • Question 2: supplies were cut off by rivals; began to fight each other for survival; slowly destroyed each other
Oligarchy • Definition: ruling power was in the hands of a few leaders • Etymology: oligos- “few” and arkhein “rule” • Question 1: wealthy individuals gained power by birth. • Question 2: rulers ruled harshly and citizens overthrew them; the peasant class grew and food shortages increased.
Tyranny • Definition: ruling power was in the hands of the individual who seized power • Etymology: tyrannos “usurper with supreme power” • Question 1: middle class workers demanded a change; individuals rose up and seized power from the ruling group. • Question 2: some tyrants became greedy and ruled harshly; they were overthrown by the people.
Democracy • Definition: ruling power is the hands of all people • Etymology: demos “people” kratos “power” • Question 1: Athens! • Assembly—of 30-40,000 men met to direct foreign policy, revise laws, and approve/condemn conduct of public officials • Council of 500—responsible for day-to-day affairs • poor and rich citizens (males) could fully participate in government