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World History in a Week: The Big Picture. When did Humans arrive on the scene?. Age of hominids? 7 million years Age of homo sapiens? 500,000 years Neanderthals? 140,000-50,000 y.a. Separate evolutionary line: First genocide? Cro-Magnon? 40,000 y.a. (fully modern anatomy).

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when did humans arrive on the scene
When did Humans arrive on the scene?
  • Age of hominids? 7 million years
  • Age of homo sapiens? 500,000 years
  • Neanderthals? 140,000-50,000 y.a.
    • Separate evolutionary line: First genocide?
  • Cro-Magnon? 40,000 y.a. (fully modern anatomy)
three great human revolutions
Three Great Human Revolutions
  • The Great Leap Forward
  • Agricultural (Neolithic) Revolution
  • Industrial Revolution
hunter gatherers
Hunter-Gatherers
  • Humanity’s only “economic” activity for at least 90% of our existence.
  • Low population densities (small groups of 40-60; 1 person/ mi2)
  • Largely egalitarian - every person performs essential functions.
great leap forward
Great Leap Forward

When? 50,000 b.p.

Emergence of:

  • Fish hooks, Arrows, Bows, Needles, Engravers, Awls
  • Art
  • Jewelry (Beads at first)
  • Navigation/Boating? (Australia from New Guinea)

Proposed Causes:

  • Voicebox development / language
  • Brain organization change

Lascaux Caves, France

overkill hypothesis
Overkill Hypothesis
  • Large, slow, or tame animals become extinct shortly after hunter-gatherer arrival in New World, Polynesia, Australia / New Guinea.
    • Flightless birds, giant cave bear, ground sloth.

Giant Extinct Moa, New Zealand

Skeleton of Giant Ground Sloth, Los Angeles

neolithic revolution
Neolithic Revolution

Domestication of Plants and Animals

  • Seed Agriculture - Fertile Crescent, western India, northern China, Ethiopia, southern Mexico (11,000 b.p.)

Rice, wheat, and corn account for more than 50% of world calories today.

Tigris River Valley irrigation, Turkey

neolithic revolution10
Neolithic Revolution

Domestication of Animals

  • Dog was probably first.
  • Early domesticated animals: cattle, oxen, pigs, sheep, goats, guinea pigs, llama
    • role in agricultural production and success
    • Relationship to success of particular cultures: Indo-European Horsemen
neolithic revolution11
Neolithic Revolution

Primary effects:

  • Urbanization
  • Social Stratification
  • Occupational Specialization
  • Increased population densities

Teotihuacan

human expansion and ancient empires
Human Expansion and Ancient Empires

Urbanization and increased efficiency lead to population growth and increased density, which leads to need for more space.

Ancient Examples:

  • Aztecs, Maya
  • Chinese Warlords / Dynasties
  • Polynesians
  • Roman Empire
  • Muslim / Ottoman Empire

Human and environmental costs are inevitable.

human expansion
Human Expansion

Urbanization and increased efficiency lead to population growth, which leads to need for more space.

human expansion14
Human Expansion

Urbanization and increased efficiency lead to population growth, which leads to need for more space.

agricultural and industrial societies accelerate extinctions
Agricultural and Industrial Societies Accelerate Extinctions
  • Flightless birds, whales, otters
  • U.S. Passenger Pigeon

Mauritius, Indian Ocean

Dodo Bird discovered in 1598, extinct by 1681.

Dodo Bird, Mauritius, Indian Ocean

age of european discovery exploration and colonization
Age of European Discovery, Exploration, and Colonization

1492 - 1771:

  • Bartholomew Dias (Portugal), 1488 - rounds Cape of Good Hope
  • Columbus, 1492 (Spanish/Italian) - first of four voyages to “New World”
  • Vasco De Gama (Portugal), 1498 - reaches India
  • Magellan (Portugal), 1519 - First Circumnavigation
  • James Cook (England), 1768-1771 - voyages in Pacific / Polynesia; end of era of Discovery

The geographical knowledge acquired was crucial to the expansion of European political and economic power in the 16th Century.

industrial revolution
Industrial Revolution

1733, First Cotton Mill opens in England

1793, Eli Whitney invents cotton ‘gin

1800, steam engines become common (steamboats, locomotives)

1837, Morse and two Brits, independent of Morse ) invent telegraph

1908, Henry Ford delivers first Model T

1945, First Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima

Geographic Effects? Migrations? Land use?

global communications and transportation revolution
Global Communications and Transportation Revolution

Technology:

  • Containerization of Cargo (1950s)
  • Inexpensive International Air Transport (1960s - present)
  • Internet and earlier Arpanet (1960s)
  • Personal Computer (1980s)
  • Satellite Communications (1990s)

Geographic Effects?

slide21

Human Population Growth

World Population Clock

globalization
Globalization
  • The increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, political, and cultural change. The economic, cultural, and environmental effects of globalization are highly contested.

Panama, 1997

transnational corporations
Transnational Corporations
  • These companies conduct business in many countries, moving products and capital rapidly across national borders.