Exercise, Successful Aging, & Disease Prevention Chapter 17, Part 1 Applied Exercise Physiology
Aging Questions • What exactly is “old?” • What is our generation’s outlook for aging? • How can physical activity help our aging process? • Quantifying physical activity… • What can America do? Who is responsible? • What physiological changes can we expect as we age?
1. What exactly is “old?” • Age categories • Old age 65+ • Young-old 75 • Oldest-old 85 • The oldest-old group growing. Why? • Cell damage = aging • Mutations of mitochondrial DNA (poss. Injury & oxidation stress) • Gene alterations that prevent proper cell division, depress the enzyme that protects telomers
New gerontology Healthspan (HLE) total # years in excellent health New gerontology maintenance vs. prevention Current statistics in people over age 70: 1/10 help with daily activities like bathing 4/10 use assistive devices (walkers/hearing aids) 1/ 2 men have arthritis 2/3 women have arthritis 1/3 high blood pressure 1/10 diabetes 6 factors related to YLL (Years of Life Lost) Tobacco Use High Blood Pressure Increased Cholesterol Obesity Low Levels of Physical Activity Low Frequency of Fruit/Veggie Consumption 2. What is our generation’s outlook for aging?
3. How can physical activity help our aging process? • Epidemiology • quantifying factors related to disease • Definitions • Physical fitness- how well PA performed • Physical activity- body moves, muscle action, energy expenditure • Exercise- planned, structured, repetitive, purposeful • Health-Related Physical Fitness- components of PF related to good health or absence of disease • Health- physical, mental, social well-being • Longevity- length of life • Fitness vs. Function in testing
Cardiovascular Fitness Lower Back & Hamstring Flexibility Abdominal Strength & Endurance Health-relatedphysical fitness Body Composition
4. Quantifying physical activity… • Measures- 30 different methods (calorimetry, questionnaires physiologic markers) • U.S. Adult Statistics • 15% regular, vigorous PA during leisure (3x/30min) • 22% regular, light/mod PA during leisure (5x/30min) • +60% no regular PA • PI more likely in women, A.A., Hisp., older adults, and lower socioeconomic status groups • U.S. Children Statistics • ½ no regular vigorous exercise (ages 12-21) • 14% no PA (esp. females & A.A. females) • 25% light to moderate PA daily
5. What can America do? Who is responsible? • SeDS • Sedentary Environmental Death Syndrome • Relates to 23 medical conditions • Healthy People 2010 • July 11, 1996- First Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity & Health • Healthy People 2010 (healthypeople.gov) • 467 objectives in 28 focus areas • Goals: • Increase quality & years of healthy life • Eliminate health disparities among nation’s citizens
Healthy People 201010 Leading Health Indicators • Physical Activity • Overweight and Obesity • Tobacco Use • Substance Abuse • Responsible Sexual Behavior • Mental Health • Injury and Violence • Environmental Quality • Immunization • Access to Health Care
Access to Quality Health Services Arthritis, Osteoporosis, and Chronic Back Conditions Cancer Chronic Kidney Disease Diabetes Disability and Secondary Conditions Educational and Community-Based Programs Environmental Health Family Planning Food Safety Health Communication Hearing Objectives Heart Disease and Stroke HIV Immunization and Infectious Diseases Injury and Violence Prevention Maternal, Infant and Child Health Medical Product Safety Mental Health and Mental Disorders Nutrition and Overweight Occupational Health Oral Health Physical Fitness Public Health Infrastructure Respiratory Diseases Sexually Transmitted Diseases Substance Abuse Tobacco Use Vision Healthy People 201028 Focus Areas
6. What physiological changes can we expect as we age? • Max out at 30 • 25% higher physiologic functioning for athletic individuals vs. sedentary • Changes • Muscular Strength • Joint Flexibility • Endocrine Function • Nervous System • Pulmonary System • Cardiovascular System • Body Composition
Muscular Strength • 20-30 years= maximum strength • Muscles reach maximal size • Begins declining after 30 years • Sarcopenia- reduced muscle size • Some reduction in number of muscle fibers • Newborn biceps 500,000 fibers • 80 yr old man bicep 300,000 fibers • Training helps prevent muscle strength losses
Joint Flexibility • Connective tissues more rigid • Cartilage, ligaments, tendons • Natural aging or deconditioning? • Regular full ROM exercises • Increase flexibility 20-50% for men & women (all ages)
Endocrine Function • Impaired glucose tolerance= type 2 diabetes • Lower pituitary release of thyroid stimulating hormone= decreased glucose metabolism & protein synthesis • Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis= menopause & andropause • Adrenal cortex= adrenopause (decrease in DHEA at 30) • Growth hormone=somatopause (decrease in GH)
Nervous System • 37% decline in # of spinal cord axons • 10% decline in nerve conduction velocity • Most noticeable in stimulus detection & info processing (involves CNS) • Physically active (young & old) move faster than less active groups
Pulmonary System • Regular PA slows deterioration of pulmonary function • Related to maintaining the endurance & power of muscles used in ventilation
Cardiovascular System • VO2Max decreases after age 20 • By 65 years, a 35-40% decline has occurred • Slower rate of decline for PA persons • Muscles ability to extract O2 remain similar in older & younger (similar phys. & training) • Reduced cardiac output (HR x SV) responsible for this reduction • CV responses to training same as younger • Middle age men training for 20+ yrs delayed this decrease • BP, Bmass, & VO2max @ 55 = age 35 • @ 70yrs. = 50 year olds
Body Composition • Does our body mass increase as we age because of normal aging or deconditioning? • How would we investigate this? • Who should we study? • How long should our study last? • What should we evaluate? • When should we evaluate them? • What would these results tell us?