Chapter Eight Rightsizing, Termination, and Retention
Chapter Outline • Rightsizing the Organization • Understand the concept of rightsizing and describe organizational strategies for rightsizing. • Discuss the effectiveness of downsizing in organizations. • Termination • Discuss termination options and issues. • Describe the issues associated with employment-at-will.
Chapter Outline • Employee Retention • Identify the major reasons for voluntary turnover in organizations. • Understand the determinants of job satisfaction and how satisfaction relates to turnover. • Evaluating the Rightsizing Process • Discuss how organizations can evaluate rightsizing strategies.
Rightsizing the Organization • Rightsizing • The process of monitoring and adjusting the composition of the organization’s workforce to its optimal size • Organizations face a real challenge in managing the size of their workforces as a way to deal with their current needs and potential future economic realities.
Rightsizing the Organization (cont’d) • Contingent workers provide a buffer for the organization. • Some organizations rely on temporary workers or other contingent workers as a way of dealing with uncertainty. • When a more serious reduction in the workforce is needed, more extreme measures are necessary.
Planning for Declines and Early Retirement(計畫性的縮編&提早退休) • When it is possible to plan systematically for a gradual decrease in the workforce, it may be possible to manage reduction through early retirements and natural attrition. • Incentives may be offered for early retirement. • Early retirement plans must be voluntary or the organization may face legal problems.
Strategies for Layoffs • Much of people’s reactions to layoffs are determined by perceptions of the justice involved in the layoff process. • People often react badly when they are told they will no longer have a job. • Some may decide to sue.
Three Types of Justice • Distributive justice • Perceptions that the outcomes a person faces are fair when compared to the outcomes faced by others • Procedural justice • Perceptions that the process used to determine the outcomes was fair • Interactional justice • The quality of the interpersonal treatment people receive when a decision is implemented
Legal Issues In Layoffs • If a layoff strategy produces disparate impact, legal actions can become problematic. • Decisions to lay off senior employees cannot be based on stereotypes about older workers and their ability to perform. • Strategies based on performance can be difficult to defend. • Large-scale layoffs must be announced in advance.
Is Downsizing Effective? • 短期有效 • 長期無效 • A recent study showed that employment downsizers had the lowest levels of return on assets over time and did poorly on stock price when compared with stable employers and asset downsizers. • Asset downsizers produced the greatest performance. • Other studies report negative effects on stock prices and other financial indexes as a result of downsizing. • Survivor syndrome can contribute to the total costs of layoffs.
小結: Downsizing要注意什麼? • 法律:大量解僱勞工保護法(民國 92 年 02 月 07 日公布 )
Termination(解僱) • Managing involuntary turnover • Despite recruiting, selection, training, and development activities, sometimes an employee does not perform up to acceptable standards or presents a disciplinary problem. • Organizations use disciplinary action in an attempt to convince the employee to improve his/her performance.
Progressive Discipline • Punishment • Following unacceptable behavior with some type of negative consequences • Discipline • The system of rules and procedures for how and when punishment is administered and how severe the punishment should be
Progressive Disciplinary Plans • Verbal warnings • Cautions conveyed orally to the employee • Written warnings • More formal warnings that are given to the employee in writing and become part of the employee’s permanent record • Suspension • Temporary layoff • Termination • Employee is fired
合法解僱員工 • 勞基法的規範 • 第11條（雇主須預告始得終止勞動契約情形） • 非有左列情形之一者，雇主不得預告勞工終止勞動契約： • 一 歇業或轉讓時。 • 二 虧損或業務緊縮時。 • 三 不可抗力暫停工作在一個月以上時。 • 四 業務性質變更，有減少勞工之必要，又無適當工作可供安置時。 • 五 勞工對於所擔任之工作確不能勝任時。
合法解僱員工 • 第12條（雇主無須預告即得終止勞動契約之情形） • 勞工有左列情形之一者，雇主得不經預告終止契約： • 一 於訂立勞動契約時為虛偽意思表示，使雇主誤信而有受損害之虞者。 • 二 對於雇主、雇主家屬、雇主代理人或其他共同工作之勞工，實施暴行或有重大侮辱之行為者。 • 三 受有期徒刑以上刑之宣告確定，而未諭知緩刑或未准易科罰金者。 • 四 違反勞動契約或工作規則，情節重大者。 • 五 故意損耗機器、工具、原料、產品，或其他雇主所有物品，或故意洩漏雇主技術上、營業上之秘密，致雇主受有損害者。 • 六 無正當理由繼續曠工三日，或一個月內曠工達六日者。 • 雇主依前項第一款、第二款及第四款至第六款規定終止契約者，應自知悉其情形之日起，三十日內為之。
合法解僱員工 • 第13條（雇主終止勞動契約之禁止暨例外） • 勞工在第五十條規定之停止工作期間（分娩或流產之產假）或第五十九條規定之醫療期間，雇主不得終止契約。但雇主因天災、事變或其他不可抗力致事業不能繼續，經報主管機關核定者，不在此限。
合法解僱員工 • 第16條（雇主終止勞動契約之預告期間） • 雇主依第十一條或第十三條但書規定終止勞動契約者，其預告期間依左列各款之規定： • 一 繼續工作三個月以上一年未滿者，於十日前預告之。 • 二 繼續工作一年以上三年未滿者，於二十日前預告之。 • 三 繼續工作三年以上者，於三十日前預告之。 • 勞工於接到前項預告後，為另謀工作得於工作時間請假外出。其請假時數，每星期不得超過二日之工作時間，請假期間之工資照給。 • 雇主未依第一項規定期間預告而終止契約者，應給付預告期間之工資。
合法解僱員工 • 第17條（資遣費之計算） • 雇主依前條終止勞動契約者，應依左列規定發給勞工資遣費： • 一 在同一雇主之事業單位繼續工作，每滿一年發給相當於一個月平均工資之資遣費。 • 二 依前款計算之剩餘月數，或工作未滿一年者，以比例計給之。未滿一個月者以一個月計。
合法解僱員工 • 勞工退休金條例:第十二條 勞工適用本條例之退休金制度者，適用本條例後之工作年資，於勞動契約依勞動基準法第十一條、第十三條但書、第十四條、第二十條或職業災害勞工保護法第二十三條、第二十四條規定終止時，其資遣費由雇主按其工作年資，每滿一年發給二分之一個月之平均工資，未滿一年者，以比例計給；最高以發給六個月平均工資為限，不適用勞動基準法第十七條之規定。
合法解僱員工 • 第18條（勞工不得請求預告期間工資及資遣費之情形） • 有左列情形之一者，勞工不得向雇主請求加發預告期間工資及資遣費： • 一 依第十二條或第十五條規定終止勞動契約者。 • 二 定期勞動契約期滿離職者。
合法解僱員工 • Employment-at-Will • This view asserts that because an employee can terminate an employment relationship at anytime, the employer should have the same rights. • Employment-at-will states that an employer can terminate any employee at any time, for any reason (good or bad), or for no reason at all. • The key to successful termination of an employee is documentation(文件紀錄).
Employee Retention(員工留任) • Job dissatisfaction is the feeling of being unhappy with one’s job. It is a major cause of voluntary turnover.
Job Embeddedness(工作鑲嵌) • Some people stay on their jobs, even when they are unhappy and should leave. Other ties in the community or obligations keep the employee on the job.
The Effects of Job Dissatisfaction • Organizational commitment • The degree to which an employee identifies with an organization and is willing to exert effort on behalf of the organization • Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) • Employee behaviors that are beneficial to the organization but are not formally required as part of an employee’s job
Measuring and Monitoring Job Satisfaction • Monitoring is done primarily through the use of attitude surveys that are distributed to employees • The responses from these surveys are used to track changes in employees’ attitudes. • Other methods include direct measures of job satisfaction, and some include questions about the levels desired versus what is experienced.
Retention Strategies • Job enrichment • Realistic job previews (RJPs) • Pre-employment previews that provide accurate and realistic information to the job applicant. They can also be used with new employees as a means of socializing them in their new job roles, and they are effective in reducing turnover. • Stock options
Evaluating the Rightsizing Process • Continuous strategic planning should result in employment projections that allow the organization to address those projections in the most painless way. • When an unanticipated downturn occurs, an organization should conduct layoffs in ways that are compassionate(慈悲). • Exit interviews(離職面談) with employees who leave voluntarily can provide insight into why employees quit.